Tea performing arts, tea terminology and translation, promote tea studies and innovations. *Contact ,icetea8@gmail.com, Trad. and Simp. Chinese used. Blog since 6/23/2005
Name: Steven R. Jones; Link: http://teaarts.blogspot.com/
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名字:瓊斯史迪芬Steven R. Jones, 網址: http://teaarts.blogspot.com/

12/13/2006

Riccardo Yeh, Director of the "Guqin Society"

Last week we had teachers, Riccardo, and his classmates come and played the guqin and it was like stepping back thousand years or so,, back then music was held at a high social status. This string instrument can poduce a multitude of sounds.
this is a writing from our friend Riccardo,
--You know in ancient China, the appreciation of the incense, tea, fine art,music and literature all together formed an complete elite culture, but today it was cut into diffrent fields which looked totally with no relationship between them. It's really pitiful! I hope our guqin society can go to you tea society again and establish along termco-oparaton to restore the subtle elite culture in ancient China.We also have another guqin society in my school: I am the Director of it. We has some kind of concert called 雅集( we invite everyone who love the qin, but do not sell the tickets) around the end of every semester.Hope someday we can play for you all!Best,Riccardo Yeh,,,, Taipei DEC 2006

---icetea

12/07/2006

orchids to tea?

I was looking up orchids and found this great piece of info...I can't vouche for all the info, if is a nice bit of work.
the following is from the site http://www.pineridgeorchids.com/

"""Barbara and I have become hopelessly enthralled with Chinese, Taiwanese, and Japanese teas over the last 10 years or so. I will attempt to give you some background information and some of our experiences with enjoying cha in the following.
All true teas as we know them (in contrast to flower and herbal infusions) are from the leaves of a Magnolia-related evergreen tree – Camellia sinensis. The tea trees are grown in tropical and sub-tropical areas, but the best leaves are from trees grown in higher elevations up to 9,000 feet (2,740 meters) where the leaves will grow more slowly and produce a richer flavor. The many different styles and tastes of tea – white, green, oolong, black, and the pu-ehrs – are the direct result of the regional variety of tea bush or tree, the local environment and substrate in which the plants are grown, how and when the leaves are picked, and how the tea is processed.
A few notes on preparing tea – water quality is critical. We suggest using Volvic (French), Crystal Geyser, Rocky Mountain, Alaskan Glacier Gold Water, or Poland Springs (all US brands), or Aquator, Bourassa Canadian, or Naya (Canadian brands) bottled water. The most important properties for good water for brewing superior tea is no hard chlorination, neutral pH (7.0), and a preferred TDS of 30 – 50 ppm. Barbara and I use our Reverse Osmosis machine which pre-treats our well water to remove the heavy calcium levels plus ozonation and gives us a TDS of 9 – 20 ppm.
When you are all done brewing your tea in your Yixing tea pot, simply rinse out the tea pot– never use any soap, just cold water. Lay the tea pot upside down to drain and air dry on a plastic drain board to prevent any chipping.
GONGFU CHA
The Chinese tea ceremony is not an elaborate formal regimented ritual like the Japanese Cha-no-yu (“The Way of Tea” perfected by Sen Rikyu in the 16th century).
The Gongfu (meaning "to do things well") method of tea became popular in China during the Ming dynasty (1250-1600). For the first time, tea was prepared in the whole leaf style and the kilns in Yixing became famous for the purple clay pots and the artist masters they produced. The Gongfu method was originally intended for brewing oolongs; today the centuries-old ritual now is used for virtually all other tea varieties.
This style of preparation and serving tea was possibly refined in the middle of the Qing Dynasty (1644 – 1911) in the town of Chaozhou in eastern Guangdong Province, close to Fujian, and almost due west of Tainan, Taiwan.
Gongfu Tea takes its name from the same term kung-fu used in the martial arts. The use of the term with tea implies similar types of concentration, practice, and spiritual benefit.
Gongfu Cha can be performed in the following manner:
Heat water to a temperature appropriate for the style of tea you are preparing.
A tea sink is used to hold the tea pot, the tea cups, the tea implements such as bamboo tweezers and picks to clean out the tea pot, and the tea presentation vessel. The sink may be simple decorated metal or bamboo or an elaborately carved piece of clay or stone, but in all cases waste water is either drained to a reservoir below the surface or to a pipe that has a drainage tube that goes into an external bucket or container.
Pour the hot water into the teapot, which is placed on the tea sink or tea boat used for the ritual. This pre-heats the tea pot.
Pour the water from the tea pot into the tea cups to warm them.
Take the tea leaves from the container and place in a tea pot using a scoop. You may want to show off the dried leaves first to your guests so place the dried leaves into a display cup which is usually glazed white inside to display the leaves. Pass the display vessel around to your guests so that they can admire and smell the leaves while they are still dry. The tea scoops may be highly decorative and carved from bamboo roots. Bamboo is used because it will not impart any flavor or smell to the leaves.
Pour the hot water over the leaves in the tea pot filling the tea pot to overflowing; pour out this first rinsing infusion into the tea sink and again pour hot water into the tea pot.
Pour hot water over the exterior of the teapot to prevent the leaves from cooling.
Empty the water from the warmed tea cups into the tea sink while the tea steeps.
There are several ways to pour the tea into the cups. I prefer pouring the contents of the tea pot into a warmed sharing vessel through a fine filter that will catch any small particles. This sharing vessel will insure that all your guests receive the same quality. You can also pour the contents of the tea pot into the cups a little at a time going back and forth to obtain the uniformity, but all the tea should be poured from the tea pot to prevent over steeping. The host may pass the emptied tea pot around to the guests so that they can appreciate the fragrance of the hot wet leaves. This can be taken to one more step by using fragrance cups. In competition, these small cylindrical cups are filled with tea and the saucer is placed on top of the cup and inverted. The cup is raised to empty the tea into the saucer and the fragrance of the tea is smelled in the cup. This, in my opinion, is getting a little extravagant, but kind of interesting to do on occasion??
Tea is served by the host and is poured into the guests’ cups in a counter-clockwise direction (bringing the circle toward your heart) to indicate that the host wants his or her guests to stay and enjoy. If the guests notice the tea being served in a clock-wise direction, I guess it is time to go.
Tea can be steeped several times – generally two times for greens, maybe 3 or 4 times for oolongs, and upwards of 7 or 10 times for exceptional aged pu-ehr.
Several types of tea can be enjoyed if the visit is long and the conversation flows. I generally like to progress from the lighter teas into the heavier more robust pu-ehrs. New and different style tea pots and cups are used for the different teas.
WHITE TEA
Chinese white teas are principally picked from the Chinese Fujian Province or from Hunan and Guangxi in south central China just as the tea bushes are starting to grow and develop their first flush of growth in early spring. The highest quality would be pre-Qing Ming just before the first leaves are unfolding from the developing bud. The developing bud is pulled or snapped off and air dried with minimal or no oxidation occurring, thus preserving the greenest of growth covered with tiny silken hairs. The leaves are not rolled during the drying heat and that stops any further oxidation. Some of the more famous of these would be White Peony, Gushan Baiyun (Drum Mountain White Cloud), and Yinzhen Bai Hao (Silver Needle). Steep about 3 grams of leaves in 6 ounces of water in water about 170 – 185 F (76 – 85 C) using a fair amount of leaves since the tea will be light and allow to steep for maybe 4 – 5 minutes. Use a glass or a glass gaiwan to enjoy the opening of the dried leaves. I’ve found the flavors will be grassy, green, and a little “vegetably” – what I would envision pure untouched tea leaves to taste like. White tea can generally be steeped twice and possibly three times with 15 to 30 seconds or so of increased steeping times. Store White Tea in a screw top glass container to protect it from air – we also store ours in the freezer to make it last longer.
GREEN TEA
I’ve always thought that China has the highest quality green teas. Japan also produces very high quality green tea, but it is processed a bit differently, and their flavors are different. The highest quality Chinese green tea is picked pre-Qing Ming, again just as the bushes begin their growth. Outside of Souzhou, Barbara and I have visited Xishan, the largest island in Lake Tai Hu. The village of Piao Miao had a snow fall one week earlier. We were climbing the short mountain and stepping all over the broken Qing and Ming Dynasty pottery shards to watch our friend, Zhou Guo-Dong (Dong dong), pick and process Bi Luo Chun tea. His five family members would pick the smallest of emerging branch tips from 6 in the morning until noon – picking maybe 500 grams of leaves that day. The leaves would be hand sorted to pick only the best leaves that would not be broken or bruised. The daily batch would then be dried and pressed by his father in a wok heated with a small wood fire stoked by his uncle. Later crops of leaves would, of course, produce much higher quantities of tea leaves as the bushes actively started to grow but the taste changes. The 2006 pre-Qing Ming Bi Luo Chun is being picked from Dong dong’s tea bushes on top of the highest point on Piao Miao which faces East and is being dried and pressed in a large steel wok by his Father and Uncle at their home on the southern base of the mountain right now – 3/28/2006.
There are many types of Chinese green teas – we have been enjoying the Bi Luo Chun, pre-Qing Ming picked Lung Ching West Lake Dragon Well, Sparrow’s Tongue, Mao Jian, Mao Feng, Lu Shan Yun Wu - there are just so many and they all have different tastes and feelings. There is also a very large difference in quality between the hand-picked competition grade tea that the farmers produce in much smaller quantities to enter into tasting competitions each spring (smallest quantity = highest price) and the same farmer’s high quality and standard quality (may be machine pruned) production teas. Tasting is the determining factor.
Barbara and I are just beginning our education in Japanese green teas. Most Japanese green teas are first steamed for about 30 seconds, sorted, and then dried over various amounts of heat.
I have read that Gyokuro (jade dew) is the highest grade of tea made in Japan and it is produced only from the first flush of leaves from plants grown under shade for 20 days or so to reduce the tannins in the leaves. It may be aged for 3 months to allow the leaves to mellow. It has a very light and delicate flavor, so brew Gyokuro for about 45 seconds with water about 140 – 160 F (670 – 70 C) – use about 4 grams (1 tsp) of the tea per 120 ml (4 ounces) water, depending upon your taste. Hojicha and Genmaicha are brewed with water closer to boiling temperature for only about 1 minute.
Shincha is the Japanese version of the Chinese “pre-Qing Ming” picked green tea in that it is the first picking of spring and is only steamed very lightly to give it a light aromatic taste – it is considered the best of the tea crop for the year. There are 5 grades of Shincha - Kiwami Shincha is the highest grade followed by Shun no Kaori Shincha.
Sencha is initially steamed, then air dried, and finally heated in a pan for the final preparation. Most Japanese tea is graded as Sencha and varies in flavor and uniformity – the later pickings being more bitter and less aromatic. Sencha is brewed at about 175 F (80 C) for about 1 to 2 minutes.
Kamairi Cha is pan-fried tea prepared in the Chinese method and its rich flavors are similar to the green Chinese teas. Two southern regions in Japan considered particularly good for this tea are Sechibaru and Ureshino.
Mecha (bud tea) is made from the rolled buds plus the tip leaves during spring growth. It is a little astringent and bitter and is sharp in flavor.
Other types of Sencha teas are Hukamushi (heavily steamed non-uniform leaves resulting in a milder tea with less green aroma), Kukicha (made from the stalks of the Gyokuro and Sencha after the bud and three leaves had been removed – light flavor and fresh green aroma), Bancha (common tea made from the later season or second flush coarser leaves with full flavor that goes well with food), Houjicha (pan-fried at higher temperatures using Kukicha and Bancha to produce reddish leaves with a clean deeply roasted flavor which is good with oily or heavier foods), and Genmaicha (roasted rice tea) which is a blend of Bancha and roasted rice.
Matcha (also spelled Maccha) is powdered tea made from hand-picked early season high grade shaded leaves similar to Gyokuro which is steamed, the leaf’s veins and stems are then removed, and the leaves are stone ground. When you drink Matcha, you are actually drinking the tea leaves themselves. It is the tea used in the Japanese Tea Ceremony (Chano-yu) – sift the bright green powder through a very fine screen called a Matcha Sifter to get rid of the lumps and produce a mellower flavor. Nishiocha from the Matcha producing region in Aichi is considered the most famous. Only the highest quality Matcha can be used to make the thick strong Koicha (leaves picked exclusively from tea bushes that are at least 30 years old). The thinner weaker style Matcha is called Usucha (the tea bushes have to be less than 30 years old). Brew Matcha at 185 – 210 F (85 – 99 C). Use about 4 grams (1 tsp) per 120 - 150 ml water (depending upon personal tastes) for a strong brew that is used in Chano-yu or about 2 grams (0.5 tsp) in 120 ml hot water for everyday Matcha. Place the talc-like powdered tea in the Matcha cup, pour in the hot water, and use a Matcha bamboo whisk vigorously to froth up the tea.
Green tea can generally be steeped twice and possibly three times with 15 to 30 seconds or so of increased steeping times. In general store, steep, and enjoy the Green Teas the same as White Teas.
Health benefits result from various health promoting flavonoids including antioxidant polyphenols, notably a catechin ECGC (epigallocatechin-3-gallate), which is especially abundant in the green teas. Catechins have been found to be more efficient free radical scavengers than Vitamins C and E and promote a wide spectrum of neuroprotective cellular mechanisms such as iron chelation and regulation of mitochondrial function. Most of the research has been based on the 3 cups of green tea per day the Asians typically drink providing about 240 – 320 mg polyphenols which includes 60 – 105 mg ECGC.


Chinese & Taiwanese Tea

Wenshan Bao Zhong oolong is produced in Pinglin in the Wen Shan area about 40 km southeast of Taipei. The village has a population of about 6,000 – 4,800 of whom are tea farmers and not only has the largest tea museum in Asia (the Pinglin Tea Industry Museum) but also produces one of the Two Sister Teas (Jie Mei Cha) of Taiwan. Bao Zhong is an extraordinary light oolong. The flavor is lighter than other oolongs because the processing calls for only about 15% oxidation compared to upwards of 60% for other oolongs. Barbara and I were looking for “big leaf” Bao Zhong and no one at the tea museum knew what we were asking until a gardener (who was also a tea farmer) there overheard us. He knew of a tea maker who was making the competition “big leaf.” A friend of Barbara’s who is in the tea importing business had once given her what looked like an entire branch of large leaves that had been lightly oxidized and dried and entered for competition. It was entirely unique – you actually had to gently crush the leaves to get them into the gaiwan so that you could steep the tea. We had never seen anything quite like that again. The competition grade Bao Zhong which was only available in very limited quantities had the same flavor as the whole branch that we had enjoyed in Homestead.
The other sister tea is Dong Ding from Wuyi Shan in the village of Luku which has an oxidation of about 35%. It is rich and medium roasted like Bao Zhong. Barbara and I found some 20 year old aged Dong Ding which has a balance of a beautifully roasted oolong and a flavor reminiscent of a light pu-ehr.
In recent years, the most expensive and highest quality oolongs were from the Alishan and Dong Ding areas mentioned above, but recently some very high quality richly roasted oolongs are from Lishan (“Pear Mountain”) where the tea is grown up to 9.000 feet (2,740 meters).
Tiekuanyin (Iron Buddha) oolong used to be exclusively from Fujian China but is now produced in Taiwan and China. It is known for its larger leaves and it’s ability to go through many steepings and still have the slightly sweet roasty flavorings.
We discovered a unique oolong from Nan Tou in Taiwan. The tea farmer takes her finest grade oolong after it has been processed and puts it through a second roasting to produce “Red Water” oolong. This tea fills the entire house up with it’s fragrance when we brew it (hot and strong) and the smoky, woodsy, sweet, and nutty flavor lasts through many steepings.
PU-EHR TEA
(my favorite)
Pu-ehr dates back to the Eastern Han Dynasty (25 – 220 AD) & possibly as early as the Shang Dynasty (1700 – 1027 BC). This early, members of local national minorities would just throw tea leaves from the scattered wild tea trees into boiling water and add pepper, cinnamon, ginger, and other spices. It was not until the Ming Dynasty (1368 – 1644) that the practice of pouring hot water over tea leaves and rolling leaves into little balls became popular. By this period, specially shaped tea cakes (375 gram and larger) were shipped to the Imperial Court as tribute and the Emperor would present smaller bricks (250 gram) as rewards to his officials.
In 1570, Dao Ying-meng, an Imperial representative, divided his jurisdiction into 12 “bannas” (a Dai language word meaning government regions for Imperial tax gathering), the most famous for Pu-ehr being the Six Tea Mountains of Xishuangbanna and Simao. It is written in the book "Chronicle of the Town of Puerh" written during the reign of Emperor Daoguang of the Qing Dynasty "In distant times the Marquis Wu (Zhuge Liang) travelled criss-cross fashion through the region of the Six Tea Mountains, leaving a copper gong in Youl, a copper snake in Mangzhi, a brick of iron in Manzhuan, a wooden beater in Yibangm a yoke harness in Gedeng and a seed bag for sowing in Mansi. These places were named after all these objects. In Mangzhi and Gedeng there are tea trees planted according to legend by the Marquis Wu himself, whom the local national minorities revere to this day, and they are much bushier and higher than in the other Tea Mountains." The original Six Tea Mountains (Youle = Copper Gong, Manzhuan = Iron Brick, Mansa = Seed Sowing Bag, Mangzhi = Copper Boa, Yibang = Wooden Clapper, and Gedeng = Leather Stirrup) region of Xishuangbanna in Yunnan where a lot of wild tea trees grew was probably the legendary place where tea cultivation started in the entire world. In 1962, the “new” Famous Six Tea Mountains were founded - Yiwu, Jingmai, Menghai, Nannuo, Bulang, and Youle, because over time, the original set of mountains had been destroyed by fire, neglect, and over-picking. This set of Six Mountains are Jiang Bei (north of Mekong River). There is also a set of Famous Six Tea Mountains that include some of the “original” mountains that are Jiang Nan (south of Mekong River) – they are Mengsong, Nannuo, Menghai, Bada, Nanqiao, and Jingmai. The town of Pu-ehr was simply the administrative center of the Six Tea Mountains banna, and that was how the tea was named. All the tea that was produced in this region, except for the Black teas, were known as pu-ehr, even though they didn’t taste like what we know as Pu-ehr. The twice-fermented tea was probably an accidental discovery when tea was being transported by horse or oxen and may have gotten damp (rain and sweat?) and oxidized. The customers who purchased this tea along the caravan trail became accustomed to the particular taste of the tea.
By the 1700s, the tea was so highly taxed that it was difficult for the tea farmers and merchants to make a living, so production and supply dropped. By the end of the Qing Dynasty (1644 – 1911), there was a devastating fire that destroyed about half of the tea growing areas in the Six Tea Mountains and disease and neglect ruined the remaining areas.
The PRC was established in 1949, and there was a renewed interest in pu-ehr tea production resulting in new factories being built, tea research facilities being established, and new tea growing areas being planted.
There are basically two general types of Pu-her – Green / raw / uncooked / Sheng or Black / cooked / Shou using the Wuo Dui (“scientifically aged using wet stacked”) style.
All pu-ehr starts out as Mao Cha or rough tea. The unbruised tea laves are plucked by hand and laid out in woven bamboo baskets and carried back to the village to be laid out on bamboo mats to start to wilt slightly before firing, which kills off the enzymes. As the firing progresses, the leaves are kneaded and rolled to produce a uniform bruising. The dried leaves can then sorted for quality and sent to the factories for further processing.
Green Sheng Pu-ehr is made from the Mao Cha using the big leaf Yunnan leaves that have little or no oxidation before being processed into the various compressed shapes. The taste of a processed tea is directly related to the soil composition, the variety of tea plant, the climate, season of picking, the altitude that the plants are growing, the quality of the tea leaves and how they were picked and handled after picking, and then the way the leaves are processed. The tea leaves are picked by hand often from very old trees, sorted to get rid of broken or over-oxidized leaves, wilted on a concrete floor under cover, and roughly raked around to batter up the leaves somewhat. After wilting for several hours (sometimes overnight), the leaves are moved outdoors exposing them to direct sunlight. They are moved around by foot until dried and turned a reddish brown color. 90% of their original moisture content has been lost. The unsorted leaves (Mao Cha) are packed up into sacks to be taken to the factories where the leaves are steamed in a machine to re-hydrate the leaves and laid out in 40 – 50 cm thick beds covered by heavy cloths to ferment for 7 – 9 days and sometimes up to a month. Care must be taken during the re-hydration to ensure the quality of the water used and to make sure the leaves do not get exposed to the smoke of the fire. This is the most important period for determining quality and price. The longer the fermentation, the finer the taste will be. The leaves are then dried and sorted into 10 different grades. They are then steamed again and compressed into different shapes – cakes (Bing Cha), bricks, cups, mushrooms, logs, etc. These compressed shapes are then put into dry storage to slowly oxidize with age, but not allowed to ever dry out completely because the oxidation process is on going. If you brew the young tea it will be very astringent, especially if the leaves are from old wild arbor-type tea trees.
Pu-her that is processed in the traditional Green method is a living tea in that various fungi are active, either in the short time or over a long extended time to give it it’s characteristic earthy, forest floor, organic characteristics. Storing the tea in the proper way is very important for aging – you want relatively low humidity odor-free air. Keep the tea in a breathable package – never in plastic. We keep our Pu-ehr in their original paper wraps inside large terra cotta pots with a large terra cotta saucer as a lid.
Black Shou Pu-ehr was first developed at the Jin-Gu Tea Factory in Yunnan around 1950 in an attempt to speed up the fermentation oxidation process. The Black Pu-ehr is made with the same leaves as the Green Pu-ehr (Mao Cha), so the tea is processed using the same initial steps as the Green Pu-ehr through drying. Starting with good quality leaves will definitely improve both Green and Black Pu-ehr. Fermentation is speeded up with an extra step called Wuo Duei which involves wetting down the leaves in a warm environment (sometimes outside in the sun with the tea being turned every few hours for several days to a month, depending upon the tea maker’s preferences) to encourage further oxidation in an auto-thermal process. The heat generated in the Wuo Duei indicates the “cooked” nomenclature. This process should be tightly controlled so that the tea does not excessively oxidize. Loose leaf Pu-ehr is now stored in cloth bags and the leaves that are to be shaped are steamed and compressed. This type of Pu-ehr is ready for brewing immediately producing a rich deep mellow flavor, but many of the subtleties of good aged Green Pu-ehr are lost. Black Pu-ehr will age for approximately 15 years and will not improve in flavor past this time. Store loose leaf Black Shou Pu-ehr in a glass container.
Please Note – there is an artificial pu-ehr called “Wet Storage” and I have heard it called “Hong Kong Style” where the loose or compressed new Sheng or Shou pu-ehr is stored in a wet, moldy, humid room to give it a strong moldy flavor. It is not safe to drink. This counterfeit tea is being produced because of the demand for real pu-ehr.
An interesting way to tell the difference between Black and Green leaves is that after brewing Green leaves can be unrolled and Black leaves will shatter.
Chinese teas are best prepared in Yixing teapots made from the special zisha clay found in Yixing, China. This fine clay, which is becoming very limited in quantity any longer, contains mica, iron, and quartz. The porous unglazed tea pots absorbs over time the delicate flavors of the teas becoming seasoned, therefore, when preparing the various teas, you should dedicate a tea pot to a certain type of tea. For example, you would not want to prepare a fine Biluochun green tea in a pot that has been used for preparing pu-ehr or an aged oolong. Yixing teapots date back to the Sung Dynasty (960 – 1279) when the purple clay was mined around the Lake Taihu area. We like to use glass tea pots for green teas so that we can see the leaves unfold and raise and fall as they steep. It is also easy to watch the color of the green tea to determine when to decant into a sharing vessel so that does not over steep and become bitter. Some teas like Green Azure, a slightly bitter lightly medicinal tea that looks like it was picked from coppiced bushes that makes a litle forest of standing bright green leaves when brewed, literally explode with activity and put on a visual display when you add water to them. This can only be enjoyed in glass.
When purchasing Yixing tea pots, look at the clay’s color uniformity, look at the clarity, mineral content, and refined substance of the clay itself, the thinness of the tea pot, how tightly the top fits the body of the tea pot, the clarity of the chop on the bottom of the tea pot (and possibly inside the top and maybe on the handle), look to see if the spout and the handle are centered and line up straight, and lay the tea pot body upside down on a flat surface and see if the tip of the spout, the top of the pot, and the top of the handle all line up (Shui Ping Hui style). The highest artist quality tea pots made from the masters will be quite evident. Caution – collecting tea pots and tea cups can be just as addictive as collecting all the different wonderful teas.
Here is an idea of the standardized method of taste testing teas used in competition –
1) 3 grams of tea leaves + 150 ml H2O are steeped for 5 minutes.
2) Check the aroma.
3) Check the tea for brightness, luster, and richness of color.
4) When tasting the tea, look for its strength, smoothness, and natural sweetness along with all the underlying tastes and after tastes.
5) Look at the leaves – freshness and tenderness.
6) Look at the dried leaves for uniformity, quality, and luster.
"Zen and Japanese Culture" by Daisetz T. Suzuki describes drinking tea in a tea room - "Who would then deny that when I am sipping tea in my tearoom I am swallowing the whole universe with it and that this very moment of my lifting the bowl to my lips is eternity itself transcending time and space? The art of tea really teaches us far more than the harmony of things, or keeping them free from contamination, or just sinking down into a state of contemplative tranquility." """
end of page from
http://www.pineridgeorchids.com/

10/25/2006

new link

http://www.aictea.it/Benvenuti.html
AICTEA
Associazione Italiana Cultura del T?

●一之源
茶者,南方之嘉木也,一尺二尺,乃至?十尺。其巴山?川有?人合抱者,伐而掇之,其?如瓜?,?如?子,花如白?薇,?如栟?,?如丁香,根如胡桃。其字或?草,或?木,或草木并。其名一曰茶,二曰?,三曰,四曰茗,五曰荈。其地:上者生?石,中者生?壤,下者生?土。凡?而不?,植而罕茂,法如种瓜,三?可采。野者上,?者次;?崖?林紫者上,?者次;?者上,牙者次;?卷上,?舒次。?山坡谷者不堪采掇,性凝?,?瘕疾。茶之?用,味至寒,??最宜精行?德之人,若?渴、凝?、?疼、目?、四支?、百?不舒,聊四五啜,与醍醐、甘露抗衡也。采不?,造不精,?以卉,莽?之成疾,茶?累也。亦?人?,上者生上党,中者生百?、新?,下者生高?。有生?州、易州、幽州、檀州者,???效,?非此者!?服?,使六疾不瘳。知人??累,?茶累?矣。

Livio, delayed post Sep..activities



Livio sent this to me but I did not post it in Sep. Opps!! sorry.
from our friend Livio
he wrote,
""While here I organized some activities. You can see and download the photos on: www.pbase.com/aictea0906
The seminars and the Wu-Wo training have been quite successfull. The participants were all professional tea vendors and amateurs coming from different places in Italy.""

here is some info for his site...
ASSOCIAZIONE ITALIANA CULTURA DEL TE'
Italian Tea Culture Association
Attivit? settembre 2006 - September 2006 Activities
Associazione Italiana Cultura del T?
Via Luigi Rizzo 1 - 36100 Vicenza
www.aictea.it (sito in costruzione)

9/15/2006

The Taipei Tea Culture Expo 台北茶文化博覽會

The Taipei Tea Culture Expo 台北茶文化博覽會

The Taipei Tea Culture Expo 台北茶文化博覽會222222

The Popularity of Taiwanese Tea

Cities derive their particular charms from many things, be it historical sites, art and fashion, such as Rome, Paris, and New York, or for the ideas that have come out of them, such as the coffee culture of Seattle exported as the Starbucks brand, or even the capital of Brazil, Brasilia’s, push to make 60% of the city green, making it the only modern city to be listed by UNESCO as a world heritage site.
Taipei is still quite young compared to other cities in the world, but it is blessed with a vibrant culture revolving around tea. Tea has been important to connoisseurs in Taipei since Lu Yu of the Tang dynasty: it is because of tea that collections of Sung dynasty tenmoku tea bowls can be seen in the houses of tea lovers around Taipei; it is because of tea that people have been infusing beverages in the shade of the Banyan trees in Taipei’s parks since the Ming dynasty; and it is because of tea that people from all countries around the world have been going in droves to the tea houses in the city’s lanes and alleys in search of the essence of the culture of tea.?
Tea trees have been a permanent fixture of Taipei for around a century, and huge amounts of tea leaves have passed through Tatao Cheng port on the way to export markets, as tea grew into a booming industry over the course of one hundred years.
Now, everyone in Taipei is familiar with teas such as black tea, green tea, and oolong tea, as well as the internationally renowned pearl milk tea in all its incarnations. Therefore people in Taipei become more and more expert, new teas are produced, tea connoisseurs espouse new tea aromas, tealeaves are packaged in new ways, teapots improve with time, and a new generation of tea lovers take on a new perspective on tea.Tea takes on new dimensions as time passes, and now we can stand up and make our selves heard and let the world know about Taipei Tea Culture.

8/11/2006

Chinese English translation systems

Mandarin pronunciation and spelling

 ==General guide, basic==
This first section is simple but not exact
Pinyin pronunciation table:


Tones
1
high and level
2
rising from mid-pitch to the level of tone 1
3
falling and rising
4
falling sharply
5
neutral tone




Vowels
a
similar to the 'ah' of 'hah'
ang
a Mandarin 'a' followed by 'ng'
e
similar to the 'er' of 'her'
eng
a Mandarin 'e' followed by 'ng'
i
similar to the 'ee' of 'bee'
er
a Mandarin 'e' with the tongue curled back
o
similar to 'or'
en
similar to the 'un' of 'fun'
u
similar to the 'u' of 'flute'
ei
similar to the 'ei' of 'weigh'
ai
similar to the 'ai' of 'aisle'
ou
similar to the 'ou' of 'dough'
ao
similar to the 'au' of 'sauerkraut'
ye/ie
similar to a short 'yeah'
an
similar to the 'an' of 'ban'
yu/u
as in the French 'u' of 'la lune'




Consonants
m, f, ch, sh
same as English
q
as in the 'ch' of 'cheese' - tongue tip is held down
b, d, n, g, s, w, y
similar to English
x
as in the 'sh' of 'ship' - tongue tip is held down
p, t, k
similar to English but with more aspiration
zh
as in the 'j' of 'jam' - tongue is curled back
l
similar to the 'l' in 'health'
r
as in 's' of 'pleasure'
h
similar to English but slightly guttural
z
as in the 'ds' of 'woods'
j
as in the 'j' of 'jungle' - tongue tip is held down
c
as in the 'ts' of 'hurts'



==The below is more in depth==

Purpose: translate Chinese tea terms into English
-use Romanization without apostrophes, capitals, hyphens, and, spaces
-use established terms that are understandable
-avoid abbreviations
From - - http://www.pinyin.info/romanization/compare/hanyu.html

Hanyu Pinyin romanization system for Mandarin Chinese
These are the syllables of Mandarin Chinese as written in and alphabetized by the Hanyu Pinyin romanization system. Also included are Zhuyin Fuhao, Wade-Giles, MPS2, Yale, Tongyong Pinyin, and Gwoyeu Romatzyh.
Zhuyin
Wade-Giles
MPS2
Yale
Tongyong Pinyin
Hanyu Pinyin
(recommended) Gwoyeu Romatzyh

注音
韋式
注音二式
雅禮
通用拼音
漢語拼音
(建議採用) 國語羅馬字

----------------------------------------------- ---1st tone 2nd tone 3rd tone 4th tone
BPMF Wade-Giles MPS II Yale Tongyong Hanyu Gwoyeu Romatzyh
ㄚ -----a ----------a -------a ---a ---------a -------a ------ar ------aa -------ah
ㄞ ai ai ai ai ai ai air ae ay
ㄢ an an an an an an arn aan ann
ㄤ ang ang ang ang ang ang arng aang anq
ㄠ ao au au ao ao au aur ao aw
ㄅㄚ pa ba ba ba ba ba bar baa bah
ㄅㄞ pai bai bai bai bai bai bair bae bay
ㄅㄢ pan ban ban ban ban ban barn baan bann
ㄅㄤ pang bang bang bang bang bang barng baang banq
ㄅㄠ pao bau bau bao bao bau baur bao baw
ㄅㄟ pei bei bei bei bei bei beir beei bey
ㄅㄣ pen ben ben ben ben ben bern been benn
ㄅㄥ peng beng beng beng beng beng berng beeng benq
ㄅㄧ pi bi bi bi bi bi byi bii bih
ㄅㄧㄢ pien bian byan bian bian bian byan bean biann
ㄅㄧㄠ piao biau byau biao biao biau byau beau biaw
ㄅㄧㄝ pieh bie bye bie bie bie bye biee bieh
ㄅㄧㄣ pin bin bin bin bin bin byn biin binn
ㄅㄧㄥ ping bing bing bing bing bing byng biing binq
ㄅㄛ po bo bwo bo bo bo bor boo boh
ㄅㄨ pu bu bu bu bu bu bwu buu buh
ㄘㄚ ts`a tsa tsa ca ca tsa tsar tsaa tsah
ㄘㄞ ts`ai tsai tsai cai cai tsai tsair tsae tsay
ㄘㄢ ts`an tsan tsan can can tsan tsarn tsaan tsann
ㄘㄤ ts`ang tsang tsang cang cang tsang tsarng tsaang tsanq
ㄘㄠ ts`ao tsau tsau cao cao tsau tsaur tsao tsaw
ㄘㄜ ts`e tse tse ce ce tse tser tsee tseh
ㄘㄣ ts`en tsen tsen cen cen tsen tsern tseen tsenn
ㄘㄥ ts`eng tseng tseng ceng ceng tseng tserng tseeng tsenq
ㄔㄚ ch`a cha cha cha cha cha char chaa chah
ㄔㄞ ch`ai chai chai chai chai chai chair chae chay
ㄔㄢ ch`an chan chan chan chan chan charn chaan chann
ㄔㄤ ch`ang chang chang chang chang chang charng chaang chanq
ㄔㄠ ch`ao chau chau chao chao chau chaur chao chaw
ㄔㄜ ch`e che che che che che cher chee cheh
ㄔㄣ ch`en chen chen chen chen chen chern cheen chenn
ㄔㄥ ch`eng cheng cheng cheng cheng cheng cherng cheeng chenq
ㄔ ch`ih chr chr chih chi chy chyr chyy chyh
ㄔㄨㄥ ch`ung chung chung chong chong chong chorng choong chonq
ㄔㄡ ch`ou chou chou chou chou chou chour choou chow
ㄔㄨ ch`u chu chu chu chu chu chwu chuu chuh
ㄔㄨㄚ ch`ua chua chwa chua chua chua chuar chuaa chuah
ㄔㄨㄞ ch`uai chuai chwai chuai chuai chuai chwai choai chuay
ㄔㄨㄢ ch`uan chuan chwan chuan chuan chuan chwan choan chuann
ㄔㄨㄤ ch`uang chuang chwang chuang chuang chuang chwang choang chuanq
ㄔㄨㄟ ch`ui chuei chwei chuei chui chuei chwei choei chuey
ㄔㄨㄣ ch`un chuen chwen chun chun chuen chwen choen chuenn
ㄔㄨㄛ ch`o chuo chwo chuo chuo chuo chwo chuoo chuoh
ㄘ tz`u tsz tsz cih ci tsy tsyr tsyy tsyh
ㄘㄨㄥ ts`ung tsung tsung cong cong tsong tsorng tsoong tsonq
ㄘㄡ ts`ou tsou tsou cou cou tsou tsour tsoou tsow
ㄘㄨ ts`u tsu tsu cu cu tsu tswu tsuu tsuh
ㄘㄨㄢ ts`uan tsuan tswan cuan cuan tsuan tswan tsoan tsuann
ㄘㄨㄟ ts`ui tsuei tswei cuei cui tsuei tswei tsoei tsuey
ㄘㄨㄣ ts`un tsuen tswen cun cun tsuen tswen tsoen tsuenn
ㄘㄨㄛ ts`o tsuo tswo cuo cuo tsuo tswo tsuoo tsuoh
ㄉㄚ ta da da da da da dar daa dah
ㄉㄞ tai dai dai dai dai dai dair dae day
ㄉㄢ tan dan dan dan dan dan darn daan dann
ㄉㄤ tang dang dang dang dang dang darng daang danq
ㄉㄠ tao dau dau dao dao dau daur dao daw
ㄉㄜ te de de de de de der dee deh
ㄉㄟ tei dei dei dei dei dei deir deei dey
ㄉㄣ ten den den den den den dern deen denn
ㄉㄥ teng deng deng deng deng deng derng deeng denq
ㄉㄧ ti di di di di di dyi dii dih
ㄉㄧㄢ tien dian dyan dian dian dian dyan dean diann
ㄉㄧㄤ tiang diang dyang diang diang diang dyang deang dianq
ㄉㄧㄠ tiao diau dyau diao diao diau dyau deau diaw
ㄉㄧㄝ tieh die dye die die die dye diee dieh
ㄉㄧㄥ ting ding ding ding ding ding dyng diing dinq
ㄉㄧㄡ tiu diou dyou diou diu diou dyou deou diow
ㄉㄨㄥ tung dung dung dong dong dong dorng doong donq
ㄉㄡ tou dou dou dou dou dou dour doou dow
ㄉㄨ tu du du du du du dwu duu duh
ㄉㄨㄢ tuan duan dwan duan duan duan dwan doan duann
ㄉㄨㄟ tui duei dwei duei dui duei dwei doei duey
ㄉㄨㄣ tun duen dwen dun dun duen dwen doen duenn
ㄉㄨㄛ to duo dwo duo duo duo dwo duoo duoh
ㄜ e e e e e e er ee eh
ㄟ ei ei ei ei ei ei eir eei ey
ㄣ en en en en en en ern een enn
ㄦ erh er er er er el erl eel ell
ㄈㄚ fa fa fa fa fa fa far faa fah
ㄈㄢ fan fan fan fan fan fan farn faan fann
ㄈㄤ fang fang fang fang fang fang farng faang fanq
ㄈㄟ fei fei fei fei fei fei feir feei fey
ㄈㄣ fen fen fen fen fen fen fern feen fenn
ㄈㄥ feng feng feng fong feng feng ferng feeng fenq
ㄈㄛ fo fo fwo fo fo fo for foo foh
ㄈㄡ fou fou fou fou fou fou four foou fow
ㄈㄨ fu fu fu fu fu fu fwu fuu fuh
ㄍㄚ ka ga ga ga ga ga gar gaa gah
ㄍㄞ kai gai gai gai gai gai gair gae gay
ㄍㄢ kan gan gan gan gan gan garn gaan gann
ㄍㄤ kang gang gang gang gang gang garng gaang ganq
ㄍㄠ kao gau gau gao gao gau gaur gao gaw
ㄍㄜ ko ge ge ge ge ge ger gee geh
ㄍㄟ kei gei gei gei gei gei geir geei gey
ㄍㄣ ken gen gen gen gen gen gern geen genn
ㄍㄥ keng geng geng geng geng geng gerng geeng genq
ㄍㄨㄥ kung gung gung gong gong gong gorng goong gonq
ㄍㄡ kou gou gou gou gou gou gour goou gow
ㄍㄨ ku gu gu gu gu gu gwu guu guh
ㄍㄨㄚ kua gua gwa gua gua gua gwa goa guah
ㄍㄨㄞ kuai guai gwai guai guai guai gwai goai guay
ㄍㄨㄢ kuan guan gwan guan guan guan gwan goan guann
ㄍㄨㄤ kuang guang gwang guang guang guang gwang goang guanq
ㄍㄨㄟ kuei guei gwei guei gui guei gwei goei guey
ㄍㄨㄣ kun guen gwun gun gun guen gwen goen guenn
ㄍㄨㄛ kuo guo gwo guo guo guo gwo guoo guoh
ㄏㄚ ha ha ha ha ha ha har haa hah
ㄏㄞ hai hai hai hai hai hai hair hae hay
ㄏㄢ han han han han han han harn haan hann
ㄏㄤ hang hang hang hang hang hang harng haang hanq
ㄏㄠ hao hau hau hao hao hau haur hao haw
ㄏㄜ ho he he he he he her hee heh
ㄏㄟ hei hei hei hei hei hei heir heei hey
ㄏㄣ hen hen hen hen hen hen hern heen henn
ㄏㄥ heng heng heng heng heng heng herng heeng henq
ㄏㄨㄥ hung hung hung hong hong hong horng hoong honq
ㄏㄡ hou hou hou hou hou hou hour hoou how
ㄏㄨ hu hu hu hu hu hu hwu huu huh
ㄏㄨㄚ hua hua hwa hua hua hua hwa hoa huah
ㄏㄨㄞ huai huai hwai huai huai huai hwai hoai huay
ㄏㄨㄢ huan huan hwan huan huan huan hwan hoan huann
ㄏㄨㄤ huang huang hwang huang huang huang hwang hoang huanq
ㄏㄨㄟ hui huei hwei huei hui huei hwei hoei huey
ㄏㄨㄣ hun huen hwen hun hun huen hwen hoen huenn
ㄏㄨㄛ huo huo hwo huo huo huo hwo huoo huoh
ㄐㄧ chi ji ji ji ji ji jyi jii jih
ㄐㄧㄚ chia jia jya jia jia jia jya jea jiah
ㄐㄧㄢ chien jian jyan jian jian jian jyan jean jiann
ㄐㄧㄤ chiang jiang jyang jiang jiang jiang jyang jeang jianq
ㄐㄧㄠ chiao jiau jyau jiao jiao jiau jyau jeau jiaw
ㄐㄧㄝ chieh jie jye jie jie jie jye jiee jieh
ㄐㄧㄣ chin jin jin jin jin jin jyn jiin jinn
ㄐㄧㄥ ching jing jing jing jing jing jyng jiing jinq
ㄐㄩㄥ chiung jiung jyung jyong jiong jiong jyong jeong jionq
ㄐㄧㄡ chiu jiou jyou jiou jiu jiou jyou jeou jiow
ㄐㄩ chü jiu jyu jyu ju jiu jyu jeu jiuh
ㄐㄩㄢ chüan jiuan jywan jyuan juan jiuan jyuan jeuan jiuann
ㄐㄩㄝ chüeh jiue jywe jyue jue jiue jyue jeue jiueh
ㄐㄩㄣ chün jiun jyun jyun jun jiun jyun jeun jiunn
ㄎㄚ k`a ka ka ka ka ka kar kaa kah
ㄎㄞ k`ai kai kai kai kai kai kair kae kay
ㄎㄢ k`an kan kan kan kan kan karn kaan kann
ㄎㄤ k`ang kang kang kang kang kang karng kaang kanq
ㄎㄠ k`ao kau kau kao kao kau kaur kao kaw
ㄎㄜ k`o ke ke ke ke ke ker kee keh
ㄎㄣ k`en ken ken ken ken ken kern keen kenn
ㄎㄥ k`eng keng keng keng keng keng kerng keeng kenq
ㄎㄨㄥ k`ung kung kung kong kong kong korng koong konq
ㄎㄡ k`ou kou kou kou kou kou kour koou kow
ㄎㄨ k`u ku ku ku ku ku kwu kuu kuh
ㄎㄨㄚ k`ua kua kwa kua kua kua kwa koa kuah
ㄎㄨㄞ k`uai kuai kwai kuai kuai kuai kwai koai kuay
ㄎㄨㄢ k`uan kuan kwan kuan kuan kuan kwan koan kuann
ㄎㄨㄤ k`uang kuang kwang kuang kuang kuang kwang koang kuanq
ㄎㄨㄟ k`uei kuei kwei kuei kui kuei kwei koei kuey
ㄎㄨㄣ k`un kuen kwen kun kun kuen kwen koen kuenn
ㄎㄨㄛ k`uo kuo kwo kuo kuo kuo kwo kuoo kuoh
ㄌㄚ la la la la la lha la laa lah
ㄌㄞ lai lai lai lai lai lhai lai lae lay
ㄌㄢ lan lan lan lan lan lhan lan laan lann
ㄌㄤ lang lang lang lang lang lhang lang laang lanq
ㄌㄠ lao lau lau lao lao lhau lau lao law
ㄌㄜ le le le le le lhe le lee leh
ㄌㄟ lei lei lei lei lei lhei lei leei ley
ㄌㄥ leng leng leng leng leng lheng leng leeng lenq
ㄌㄧ li li li li li lhi li lii lih
ㄌㄧㄚ lia lia lya lia lia lhia lia lea liah
ㄌㄧㄢ lien lian lyan lian lian lhian lian lean liann
ㄌㄧㄤ liang liang lyang liang liang lhiang liang leang lianq
ㄌㄧㄠ liao liau lyau liao liao lhiau liau leau liaw
ㄌㄧㄝ lieh lie lye lie lie lhie lie liee lieh
ㄌㄧㄣ lin lin lin lin lin lhin lin liin linn
ㄌㄧㄥ ling ling ling ling ling lhing ling liing linq
ㄌㄧㄡ liu liou lyou liou liu lhiou liou leou liow
ㄌㄛ lo lo lo lo lo lo lor loo loh
ㄌㄨㄥ lung lung lung long long lhong long loong lonq
ㄌㄡ lou lou lou lou lou lhou lou loou low
ㄌㄨ lu lu lu lu lu lhu lu luu luh
ㄌㄨㄢ luan luan lwan luan luan lhuan luan loan luann
ㄌㄨㄣ lun luen lwun lun lun lhuen luen loen luenn
ㄌㄨㄛ lo luo lwo luo luo lhuo luo luoo luoh
ㄌㄩ lü liu lyu lyu lü lhiu liu leu liuh
ㄌㄩㄝ lüeh liue lywe lyue lüe lhiue liue leue liueh
ㄌㄩㄣ lün liun lyun lyun lün lhiun liun leun liunn
ㄇㄚ ma ma ma ma ma mha ma maa mah
ㄇㄞ mai mai mai mai mai mhai mai mae may
ㄇㄢ man man man man man mhan man maan mann
ㄇㄤ mang mang mang mang mang mhang mang maang manq
ㄇㄠ mao mau mau mao mao mhau mau mao maw
ㄇㄜ me me me me me me mer mee meh
ㄇㄟ mei mei mei mei mei mhei mei meei mey
ㄇㄣ men men men men men mhen men meen menn
ㄇㄥ meng meng meng meng meng mheng meng meeng menq
ㄇㄧ mi mi mi mi mi mhi mi mii mih
ㄇㄧㄢ mien mian myan mian mian mhian mian mean miann
ㄇㄧㄠ miao miau myau miao miao mhiau miau meau miaw
ㄇㄧㄝ mieh mie mye mie mie mhie mie miee mieh
ㄇㄧㄣ min min min min min mhin min miin minn
ㄇㄧㄥ ming ming ming ming ming mhing ming miing minq
ㄇㄧㄡ miu miou myou miou miu mhiou miou meou miow
ㄇㄛ mo mo mwo mo mo mho mo moo moh
ㄇㄡ mou mou mou mou mou mhou mou moou mow
ㄇㄨ mu mu mu mu mu mhu mu muu muh
ㄋㄚ na na na na na nha na naa nah
ㄋㄞ nai nai nai nai nai nhai nai nae nay
ㄋㄢ nan nan nan nan nan nhan nan naan nann
ㄋㄤ nang nang nang nang nang nhang nang naang nanq
ㄋㄠ nao nau nau nao nao nhau nau nao naw
ㄋㄜ ne ne ne ne ne nhe ne nee neh
ㄋㄟ nei nei nei nei nei nhei nei neei ney
ㄋㄣ nen nen nen nen nen nhen nen neen nenn
ㄋㄥ neng neng neng neng neng nheng neng neeng nenq
ㄋㄧ ni ni ni ni ni nhi ni nii nih
ㄋㄧㄚ nia nia nya nia nia nia niar niaa niah
ㄋㄧㄢ nien nian nyan nian nian nhian nian nean niann
ㄋㄧㄤ niang niang nyang niang niang nhiang niang neang nianq
ㄋㄧㄠ niao niau nyau niao niao nhiau niau neau niaw
ㄋㄧㄝ nieh nie nye nie nie nhie nie niee nieh
ㄋㄧㄣ nin nin nin nin nin nhin nin niin ninn
ㄋㄧㄥ ning ning ning ning ning nhing ning niing ninq
ㄋㄧㄡ niu niou nyou niou niu nhiou niou neou niow
ㄋㄨㄥ nung nung nung nong nong nhong nong noong nonq
ㄋㄡ nou nou nou nou nou nhou nou noou now
ㄋㄨ nu nu nu nu nu nhu nu nuu nuh
ㄋㄨㄢ nuan nuan nwan nuan nuan nhuan nuan noan nuann
ㄋㄨㄣ nun nuen nwen nun nun nhuen nuen noen nuenn
ㄋㄨㄛ no nuo nwo nuo nuo nhuo nuo nuoo nuoh
ㄋㄩ nü niu nyu nyu nü nhiu niu neu niuh
ㄋㄩㄝ nüeh niue nywe nyue nüe nhiue niue neue niueh
ㄡ ou ou ou ou ou ou our oou ow
ㄆㄚ p`a pa pa pa pa pa par paa pah
ㄆㄞ p`ai pai pai pai pai pai pair pae pay
ㄆㄢ p`an pan pan pan pan pan parn paan pann
ㄆㄤ p`ang pang pang pang pang pang parng paang panq
ㄆㄠ p`ao pau pau pao pao pau paur pao paw
ㄆㄟ p`ei pei pei pei pei pei peir peei pey
ㄆㄣ p`en pen pen pen pen pen pern peen penn
ㄆㄥ p`eng peng peng peng peng peng perng peeng penq
ㄆㄧ p`i pi pi pi pi pi pyi pii pih
ㄆㄧㄢ p`ien pian pyan pian pian pian pyan pean piann
ㄆㄧㄠ p`iao piau pyau piao piao piau pyau peau piaw
ㄆㄧㄝ p`ieh pie pye pie pie pie pye piee pieh
ㄆㄧㄣ p`in pin pin pin pin pin pyn piin pinn
ㄆㄧㄥ p`ing ping ping ping ping ping pyng piing pinq
ㄆㄛ p`o po pwo po po po por poo poh
ㄆㄡ p`ou pou pou pou pou pou pour poou pow
ㄆㄨ p`u pu pu pu pu pu pwu puu puh
ㄑㄧ ch`i chi chi ci qi chi chyi chii chih
ㄑㄧㄚ ch`ia chia chya cia qia chia chya chea chiah
ㄑㄧㄢ ch`ien chian chyan cian qian chian chyan chean chiann
ㄑㄧㄤ ch`iang chiang chyang ciang qiang chiang chyang cheang chianq
ㄑㄧㄠ ch`iao chiau chyau ciao qiao chiau chyau cheau chiaw
ㄑㄧㄝ ch`ieh chie chye cie qie chie chye chiee chieh
ㄑㄧㄣ ch`in chin chin cin qin chin chyn chiin chinn
ㄑㄧㄥ ch`ing ching ching cing qing ching chyng chiing chinq
ㄑㄩㄥ ch`iung chiung chyung cyong qiong chiong chyong cheong chionq
ㄑㄧㄡ ch`iu chiou chyou ciou qiu chiou chyou cheou chiow
ㄑㄩ ch`ü chiu chyu cyu qu chiu chyu cheu chiuh
ㄑㄩㄢ ch`üan chiuan chywan cyuan quan chiuan chyuan cheuan chiuann
ㄑㄩㄝ ch`üeh chiue chywe cyue que chiue chyue cheue chiueh
ㄑㄩㄣ ch`ün chiun chyun cyun qun chiun chyun cheun chiunn
ㄖㄢ jan ran ran ran ran rhan ran raan rann
ㄖㄤ jang rang rang rang rang rhang rang raang ranq
ㄖㄠ jao rau rau rao rao rhau rau rao raw
ㄖㄜ je re re re re rhe re ree reh
ㄖㄣ jen ren ren ren ren rhen ren reen renn
ㄖㄥ jeng reng reng reng reng rheng reng reeng renq
ㄖ jih r r rih ri rhy ry ryy ryh
ㄖㄨㄥ jung rung rung rong rong rhong rong roong ronq
ㄖㄡ jou rou rou rou rou rhou rou roou row
ㄖㄨ ju ru ru ru ru rhu ru ruu ruh
ㄖㄨㄢ juan ruan rwan ruan ruan rhuan ruan roan ruann
ㄖㄨㄟ jui ruei rwei ruei rui rhuei ruei roei ruey
ㄖㄨㄣ jun ruen rwun run run rhuen ruen roen ruenn
ㄖㄨㄛ jo ruo rwo ruo ruo rhuo ruo ruoo ruoh
ㄙㄚ sa sa sa sa sa sa sar saa sah
ㄙㄞ sai sai sai sai sai sai sair sae say
ㄙㄢ san san san san san san sarn saan sann
ㄙㄤ sang sang sang sang sang sang sarng saang sanq
ㄙㄠ sao sau sau sao sao sau saur sao saw
ㄙㄜ se se se se se se ser see seh
ㄙㄟ sei sei sei sei sei sei seir seei sey
ㄙㄣ sen sen sen sen sen sen sern seen senn
ㄙㄥ seng seng seng seng seng seng serng seeng senq
ㄕㄚ sha sha sha sha sha sha shar shaa shah
ㄕㄞ shai shai shai shai shai shai shair shae shay
ㄕㄢ shan shan shan shan shan shan sharn shaan shann
ㄕㄤ shang shang shang shang shang shang sharng shaang shanq
ㄕㄠ shao shau shau shao shao shau shaur shao shaw
ㄕㄜ she she she she she she sher shee sheh
ㄕㄟ shei shei shei shei shei shei sheir sheei shey
ㄕㄣ shen shen shen shen shen shen shern sheen shenn
ㄕㄥ sheng sheng sheng sheng sheng sheng sherng sheeng shenq
ㄕ shih shr shr shih shi shy shyr shyy shyh
ㄕㄨㄥ shung shung shung shong shong shong shorng shoong shonq
ㄕㄡ shou shou shou shou shou shou shour shoou show
ㄕㄨ shu shu shu shu shu shu shwu shuu shuh
ㄕㄨㄚ shua shua shwa shua shua shua shwa shoa shuah
ㄕㄨㄞ shuai shuai shwai shuai shuai shuai shwai shoai shuay
ㄕㄨㄢ shuan shuan shwan shuan shuan shuan shwan shoan shuann
ㄕㄨㄤ shuang shuang shwang shuang shuang shuang shwang shoang shuanq
ㄕㄨㄟ shui shuei shwei shuei shui shuei shwei shoei shuey
ㄕㄨㄣ shun shuen shwun shun shun shuen shwen shoen shuenn
ㄕㄨㄛ shuo shuo shwo shuo shuo shuo shwo shuoo shuoh
ㄙ ssu sz sz sih si sy syr syy syh
ㄙㄨㄥ sung sung sung song song song sorng soong sonq
ㄙㄡ sou sou sou sou sou sou sour soou sow
ㄙㄨ su su su su su su swu suu suh
ㄙㄨㄢ suan suan swan suan suan suan swan soan suann
ㄙㄨㄟ sui suei swei suei sui suei swei soei suey
ㄙㄨㄣ sun suen swen sun sun suen swen soen suenn
ㄙㄨㄛ so suo swo suo suo suo swo suoo suoh
ㄊㄚ t`a ta ta ta ta ta tar taa tah
ㄊㄞ t`ai tai tai tai tai tai tair tae tay
ㄊㄢ t`an tan tan tan tan tan tarn taan tann
ㄊㄤ t`ang tang tang tang tang tang tarng taang tanq
ㄊㄠ t`ao tau tau tao tao tau taur tao taw
ㄊㄜ t`e te te te te te ter tee teh
ㄊㄥ t`eng teng teng teng teng teng terng teeng tenq
ㄊㄧ t`i ti ti ti ti ti tyi tii tih
ㄊㄧㄢ t`ien tian tyan tian tian tian tyan tean tiann
ㄊㄧㄠ t`iao tiau tyau tiao tiao tiau tyau teau tiaw
ㄊㄧㄝ t`ieh tie tye tie tie tie tye tiee tieh
ㄊㄧㄥ t`ing ting ting ting ting ting tyng tiing tinq
ㄊㄨㄥ t`ung tung tung tong tong tong torng toong tonq
ㄊㄡ t`ou tou tou tou tou tou tour toou tow
ㄊㄨ t`u tu tu tu tu tu twu tuu tuh
ㄊㄨㄢ t`uan tuan twan tuan tuan tuan twan toan tuann
ㄊㄨㄟ t`ui tuei twei tuei tui tuei twei toei tuey
ㄊㄨㄣ t`un tuen twen tun tun tuen twen toen tuenn
ㄊㄨㄛ t`o tuo two tuo tuo tuo two tuoo tuoh
ㄨㄚ wa wa wa wa wa ua wa waa wah
ㄨㄞ wai wai wai wai wai uai wai woai way
ㄨㄢ wan wan wan wan wan uan wan woan wann
ㄨㄤ wang wang wang wang wang uang wang woang wanq
ㄨㄟ wei wei wei wei wei uei wei woei wey
ㄨㄣ wen wen wen wun wen uen wen woen wenn
ㄨㄥ weng weng weng wong weng ueng weng woeng wenq
ㄨㄛ wo wo wo wo wo uo wo woo woh
ㄨ wu wu wu wu wu u wu wuu wuh
ㄒㄧ hsi shi syi si xi shi shyi shii shih
ㄒㄧㄚ hsia shia sya sia xia shia shya shea shiah
ㄒㄧㄢ hsien shian syan sian xian shian shyan shean shiann
ㄒㄧㄤ hsiang shiang syang siang xiang shiang shyang sheang shianq
ㄒㄧㄠ hsiao shiau syau siao xiao shiau shyau sheau shiaw
ㄒㄧㄝ hsieh shie sye sie xie shie shye shiee shieh
ㄒㄧㄣ hsin shin syin sin xin shin shyn shiin shinn
ㄒㄧㄥ hsing shing sying sing xing shing shyng shiing shinq
ㄒㄩㄥ hsiung shiung syung syong xiong shiong shyong sheong shionq
ㄒㄧㄡ hsiu shiou syou siou xiu shiou shyou sheou shiow
ㄒㄩ hsü shiu syu syu xu shiu shyu sheu shiuh
ㄒㄩㄢ hsüan shiuan sywan syuan xuan shiuan shyuan sheuan shiuann
ㄒㄩㄝ hsüeh shiue sywe syue xue shiue shyue sheue shiueh
ㄒㄩㄣ hsün shiun syun syun xun shiun shyun sheun shiunn
ㄧㄚ ya ya ya ya ya ia ya yea yah
ㄧㄢ yan yan yan yan yan ian yan yean yann
ㄧㄤ yang yang yang yang yang iang yang yeang yanq
ㄧㄠ yao yau yau yao yao iau yau yeau yaw
ㄧㄝ yeh ye ye ye ye ie ye yee yeh
ㄧ i yi yi yi yi i yi yii yih
ㄧㄣ yin yin yin yin yin in yn yiin yinn
ㄧㄥ ying ying ying ying ying ing yng yiing yinq
ㄩㄥ yung yung yung yong yong iong yong yeong yonq
ㄧㄡ yu you you you you iou you yeou yow
ㄩ yü yu yu yu yu iu yu yeu yuh
ㄩㄢ yüan yuan ywan yuan yuan iuan yuan yeuan yuann
ㄩㄝ yüeh yue ywe yue yue iue yue yeue yueh
ㄩㄣ yün yun yun yun yun iun yun yeun yunn
ㄗㄚ tsa tza dza za za tza tzar tzaa tzah
ㄗㄞ tsai tzai dzai zai zai tzai tzair tzae tzay
ㄗㄢ tsan tzan dzan zan zan tzan tzarn tzaan tzann
ㄗㄤ tsang tzang dzang zang zang tzang tzarng tzaang tzanq
ㄗㄠ tsao tzau dzau zao zao tzau tzaur tzao tzaw
ㄗㄜ tse tze dze ze ze tze tzer tzee tzeh
ㄗㄟ tsei tzei dzei zei zei tzei tzeir tzeei tzey
ㄗㄣ tsen tzen dzen zen zen tzen tzern tzeen tzenn
ㄗㄥ tseng tzeng dzeng zeng zeng tzeng tzerng tzeeng tzenq
ㄓㄚ cha ja ja jha zha ja jar jaa jah
ㄓㄞ chai jai jai jhai zhai jai jair jae jay
ㄓㄢ chan jan jan jhan zhan jan jarn jaan jann
ㄓㄤ chang jang jang jhang zhang jang jarng jaang janq
ㄓㄠ chao jau jau jhao zhao jau jaur jao jaw
ㄓㄜ che je je jhe zhe je jer jee jeh
ㄓㄟ chei jei jei jhei zhei jei jeir jeei jey
ㄓㄣ chen jen jen jhen zhen jen jern jeen jenn
ㄓㄥ cheng jeng jeng jheng zheng jeng jerng jeeng jenq
ㄓ chih jr jr jhih zhi jy jyr jyy jyh
ㄓㄨㄥ chung jung jung jhong zhong jong jorng joong jonq
ㄓㄡ chou jou jou jhou zhou jou jour joou jow
ㄓㄨ chu ju ju jhu zhu ju jwu juu juh
ㄓㄨㄚ chua jua jwa jhua zhua jua jwa joa juah
ㄓㄨㄞ chuai juai jwai jhuai zhuai juai jwai joai juay
ㄓㄨㄢ chuan juan jwan jhuan zhuan juan jwan joan juann
ㄓㄨㄤ chuang juang jwang jhuang zhuang juang jwang joang juanq
ㄓㄨㄟ chui juei jwei jhuei zhui juei jwei joei juey
ㄓㄨㄣ chun juen jwen jhun zhun juen jwen joen juenn
ㄓㄨㄛ cho juo jwo jhuo zhuo juo jwo juoo juoh
ㄗ tzu tz dz zih zi tzy tzyr tzyy tzyh
ㄗㄨㄥ tsung tzung dzung zong zong tzong tzorng tzoong tzonq
ㄗㄡ tsou tzou dzou zou zou tzou tzour tzoou tzow
ㄗㄨ tsu tzu dzu zu zu tzu tzwu tzuu tzuh
ㄗㄨㄢ tsuan tzuan dzwan zuan zuan tzuan tzwan tzoan tzuann
ㄗㄨㄟ tsui tzuei dzwei zuei zui tzuei tzwei tzoei tzuey
ㄗㄨㄣ tsun tzuen dzwen zun zun tzuen tzwen tzoen tzuenn
ㄗㄨㄛ tso tzuo dzwo zuo zuo tzuo tzwo tzuoo tzuoh

= = =
Table of Pinyin Pronunciation
from http://hua.umf.maine.edu/Chinese/topics/pinyin/pinyin.html
Letter -Western Language Words-Pinyin -Pinyin-Notes
b -------bay ----------------------ba1 ----bi3 -- (sometimes overlaps with p)
p pay pei2 pi3 (pei and bei are often said for the same character)
m may mo4 men2
f fair fa1 fen4
d day duo1 dang1
t take ta1 tian1 (tian and dian can be confused when listening)
n nay ni3 na4
l lay lan2 lao3
g gay gai1 gong1
k kay ke1 kao4
h hay hai2 Huang2 He2 (often said with a rasp at the back of the throat)
j jeep jie1 ju2 (palatial)
q cheer qian2 qie1
x she xian1 xie4xie (palatial)
zh junk zhao1 zheng3 (retro - devoiced)
ch church chang2chang2 cheng2 (retro)
sh shirt shi4 shu1 (retro)
r leisure ren2 rou4 (retro) (can include a bit of the s on leisure)
z reads zai4 zan3 (devoiced)
c hats cao3 ci2
s say san1 song4
y yea yan3 ye2ye
w way wen4 wu3
VOWELS
a father ta1 ma3
o saw mo4 po1 (halfway between o and a)
e British her zhe4 che1 (in the back of the throat)
i (no illustration) zhi1 ci4 (after z, c, s, zh, ch, sh, r)
i see ti3 qi1 (after other consonants)
u rude lu4 ju2
ü French tu, German Fü hlen lu~4 nu~3 (ee with rounded lips)

er are er4 er2
ai eye hai2 bai3
ei eight mei2 gei3
ao now hao3 zao1
ou oh dou1 zhou1
an can san3 wan3
en British turn wen2 fen3

ang German Gang wang4 tang1
eng sung zheng4 ceng2
ong German Lunge zhong1 song4
ia Asia jia1 xia4
ie yes jie1 qie1
iao yeowl qiao3 jiao1
iu yoke / yukon jiu4 / jiu3 liu2 / xiu1 (varies with consonant)
ian yen tian1 dian3
in in qin1 jin4 (the j creates slightly more ee sound)

iang e+yang liang2 xiang3 (approximately - with the 'a' in papa)
ing sing ting1 bing4
iong German Jü nger xiong2 qiong2 ren2
ua guano hua4 zhua1
uo wall guo2 cuo4
uai wife kuai4 guai3
uan one yuan2 zhuan3
un went cun4 kun3
uang oo+ahng zhuang4 guang3
ü e ü+eh
ü an ü+an
ü n German grü n
kongr corn you3 kong4r kong4r (soften n)
wanr w + far wan2r wan2r (n is silent)
dianr d + yar dian3r you3 yi2 dian3r (n is silent)


Some good info on learning Chinese.

Here is the site below.
Learn Chinese Online
Romanized spelling system of Chinese - Pinyin
The phonological system of the modern standard language in Chinese, Putonghua or Guoyu, can be represented by letters. Of all the letters of English alphabet, 25 letters are used for Pinyin. Letter 'v' is not used, while letter '?' is added to represent the vowel sound 'yu'.
Consonant letters
There are 20 consonant letters use in Putonghua. Letter 'V' is not used. Three consonants are represented by combinations of two letters - 'zh', 'ch' and 'sh':
b p m f d t n l g k h j q x z c s zh ch sh r y w



Chinese Romanization Introduction
A romanization system is a method of using letters of the Roman alphabet (ABCD...) to recreate the sounds of a language whose writing system may or may not use the Roman alphabet. A Chinese romanization system would thus be a method of using the Roman alphabet to pronounce Chinese characters (or hanzi) used in Chinese languages.

Although the Chinese language has many dialects (examples: Cantonese, Hakka, Shanghainese, and Minnan), the official one is based on the pronunciation in Beijing, China. This dialect is named the following:
•Mandarin
◦Term used in English.
•Putonghua
◦Literal: "Commonlect"
◦Term used in mainland China.
•Guoyu
◦Literal: "Statelect"
◦Term used in Taiwan and other Chinese countries.

In Mandarin, every Chinese character has a set pitch or tone. There are four possible tones. Because the Chinese characters in Mandarin can also be de-tonalized, a fifth tone can also be considered. Romanization systems indicate tone by one of the following methods...
1.Tone marks: Placing a special mark over a vowel in a syllable to indicate tone.
2.Tonal numbers: Placing a number (in this case 1-4 or 1-5) at the end of a syllable.
3.Tonal spellings: Use combinations of Roman letters to indicate different tones (i.e. spelling the tone out).
Outside of language teaching, tone marks and numbers are usually never used. On the internet, tonal numbers are more convenient than tone marks since they don't require special fonts.

There are many different romanization systems for Mandarin. The most commonly seen in English are Pinyin and Wade-Giles. Since the late 1970s Pinyin has increasingly tended to replace other systems both in teaching and in other uses (although Wade-Giles is still resilient in some quarters). Aside from the systems listed below, in French the EFEO system and in German the Lessing-Othmer system have (or rather used to have) a place similar to the use of Wade-Giles in English.

Chinese romanizations worthy of mention are:

1.Latinhua Sin Wenz (Beila)
◦Created in 1929 by Qu Qiubai et al., final form in 1931
◦Popular during the 1930s and 1940s.
◦Used in northern China and Soviet Union.
◦No tonal indicators.
◦No longer used (replaced by PinYin)
2.PinYin (full name: Hanyu Pinyin [i.e. Chinese alphabetic system])
◦Promulgated in 1958
◦United Nations Standard from 1977
◦International Standard Organization (ISO) standard from 1982
3.Gwoyeu Romatzyh (also called National Romanization)
◦Finalized in 1928
■Created by Y.R. Chao (Zhao Yuanren) and others.
■Uses tonal spellings instead of tone marks.
◦Occasionally seen in Taiwan
4.Juyin II
◦Finalized in 1986
■Adapted from Gwoyeu Romatzyh
■Uses tone marks instead of tonal spellings.
◦From 1998 used on some street-signs in Taiwan but not Taipei
5.Wade-Giles
◦First published in 1859 by Thomas Francis Wade
■Developed from R. Morrison's 1815 system.
■Later modifed by Herbert Allen Giles in 1912.
■Uses k k' p p' t t' etc. instead of g k b p d t
◦Formerly near exclusive system in English-speaking countries.
◦Remains defacto system in Taiwan for personal names
6.Yale
◦Created in 1948 for US military language-teaching
◦Later widely used in teaching in the US for a period of time
7.Chinese Post Office System
◦Old system used instead of Wade-Giles for some place-names
◦Examples:
■Peking (Wade-Giles: Pei-ching)
■Tsingtao (Wade-Giles: Ch'ing-tao)
■Chungking (Wade-Giles: Ch'ung-ch'ing)
■Sinkiang (Wade-Giles: Hsin-chiang)

Though not a romanization, also of interest is the Mandarin Phonetic Symbols, or Juyin Fuhao (also known as BoPoMoFo to children and foreigners of Chinese), whose symbols are derived from character-strokes. This system was adopted in 1913, and is used in Taiwan to indicate pronunciation in dictionaries, teach children to read, etc. On mainland China, this system was replaced by Pinyin.

In a related area, there are two different ways to depict Chinese characters, the traditional and the simplified version. Not long ago, mainland China modified some commonly used Chinese characters and simplified them, creating a new writing system for the Chinese language.