Tea performing arts, tea terminology and translation, promote tea studies and innovations. *Contact ,icetea8@gmail.com, Trad. and Simp. Chinese used. Blog since 6/23/2005
Name: Steven R. Jones; Link: http://teaarts.blogspot.com/
名字:瓊斯史迪芬Steven R. Jones, 網址: http://teaarts.blogspot.com/


College lecture on tea 茶與生活

茶與生活 - 國際英語
Tea and Life - International English
Technology and Science Institute of Northern Taiwan, TSINT,
Lecture Brief : Origins of tea and why people have been so close to tea, tea has been a fad through different periods of history, but never completely faded a way, also tea as a special function on culture, arts, and even our daily lives, this is the golden age of tea and you will be part of it, great or small... the spirit of tea and the spirit or life of today's people.
by Steven R. Jones
Dec. 10, 2008
About the school:
Technology and Science Institute of Northern Taiwan
Chinese: http://www.tsint.edu.tw/
English: http://english.moe.gov.tw/mp.asp?mp=1163
No.2 , Xueyuan Rd., Beitou , Taipei, Taiwan, R.O.C.
Established in 1971. Upgraded in 2000. Renamed in 2004, 2006
Established in 1971. Upgraded in 2000. Renamed in 2004, 2006
The Technology and Science Institute of Northern Taiwan is located on the Kuan Tu plain at the foot of Ta Tun Mountain.



Tenfu Tea College Department of Tea Arts,
First Class of Specialized English for Tea,
congratulation students,
see you all next year.
thanks to all the photographers and Estella.
天福茶學院茶文化系, 第一届茶之专业英语,
谢谢Estella ,or little star, (Huang Yixing) 黄艺星,小星星
---teacher jones


First English Tea Arts Play at TFTC

Tenfu Tea College
Department of Tea Arts
First Class of Specialized English for Tea
The Lost Teapot
7:00-9:00pm Nov.30, 2008
Directed导演 by Steven R. Jones
Assistant Directed by Chang, Li-hsiang张丽香


Shantou and Tenfu Tea College

Shantou University汕头大学 visit to Tenfu Tea College天福茶学院. (on 11/22/2008)

发布日期:2008-12-8 8:33:56  浏览次数:95
汕大茶学社34名同学在茶文化系同学的带领下参观了本院校,对本校的教学设施,优美环境及建设规模赞赏不已。在专业学术交流中Jones Teacher和茶学部成员通过中英文结合地介绍了茶文化、各种泡茶技艺及两院校同学共同参与了无我茶会。加深了他们对茶文化的认识和亲身体验泡茶技巧。最后在参观校办厂及博物院中,了解到了我校的办学特色及全面地认识了世界茶俗、茶文化。
茶文化系学生会 , 林小燕报道 , 2008年11月23日


華安 , 美好的一天。

繪畫 , 書法照片
Two Tea Art Culture groups get together.
A Tea Culture Taipei exchange group of many teachers came to Hwaan. Together with a Hwaan Tea Culture exchange group they wrote and painted many works of calligraphy and water painting arts. What a beautiful day it was. One painting was created by a Taipei and a Hwaan artist, in harmony and beauty.


枫林之夜无我茶会 Autumn Maple Forest Wu-Wo Tea Ceremony Chronicle

枫林之夜无我茶会 Autumn Maple Forest Wu-Wo Tea Ceremony

第二次枫林之夜无我茶会时间 2009年11月22日7:00-7:45pm晚地点天福茶学院陆羽广场
What: Second Autumn Maple Forest Wu-Wo Tea Ceremony When: Nov. 22, 2009 7:00-7:45pm Place: Lu-Yu Square, Ten Fu Tea College
第一屆 2008.11.16 日晚地点天福茶学院陆羽广场 1. Lu-Yu Square, Tenfu Tea College, Nov. 16, 2008 7:00-7:45pm
第二屆 2009.11.22 日晚地点天福茶学院陆羽广场, 2. Lu-Yu Square, Tenfu Tea College, Nov. 22, 2009 7:00-7:45pm

First English Tea Ceremony at the College!!!
枫林之夜无我茶会照片pictures here.
枫林之夜无我茶会照片pictures here.
Nov. 16, 2008 7:00-7:45pm, the "First Autumn Maple Forest Wu-Wo Tea Ceremony", (第一次枫林之夜无我茶会) was organized by Steven R. Jones, of the Tenfu Tea College, Department of Tea Arts. The Multilanguage Tea Gathering was conducted to promote international tea culture and to utilize the skills obtained by the Specialized English course and to There were around 130 participants(130人) mostly from the Specialized English for Tea course. The Wu-Wo Tea Ceremony was conducted in English and Chinese, we prepared seven narrators to accomplish the task of English and Chinese instruction. Task members were prepared for English and Chinese. Banners and announcements were written in both languages to some degree. Every year we will organize an “Autumn Maple Forest Wu-Wo Tea Ceremony"(枫林之夜无我茶会), with both English and Chinese instruction and translations. The term (autumn maple leaves) is from the text book, [ 专业英语 Specialized English for Tea , Written by Steven R. Jones Oct. 2, 2008 ] .
Steven R. Jones created a specific English Language Tea Course and writer of its text book, [ 专业英语 Specialized English for Tea , Written by Steven R. Jones Oct. 2, 2008 ]. The Course is designed for setting a standard for tea terminology and to meet the demands of the Tenfu Tea College students’ future role in the international society.
First Autumn Maple Forest Wu-Wo Tea Ceremony
Tenfu Tea College
Department of Tea Arts
First Class of Specialized English for Tea

Wu-Wo Tea Ceremony Public Announcement
First Autumn Maple Forest Wu-Wo Tea Ceremony
天福茶学院陆羽广场 Ten Fu Tea College Lu-Yu Square

Mr. Steven R. Jones
Ms. Chang Li-Hsiang


朱小明、余喜鸿 联系电话(n/a)


茶之专业英语Specialized English for Tea

class since 2008
选修课: 28, 课程名称:专业英语*, 学时数学分:2, 学年:第二学年,

Everything you ever wanted to know about tea and more.
Tenfu Tea College(天福茶學院)located in Fujian Zhangzhou, the first College devoted to the study of tea. http://www.tftc.edu.cn/ Internatianal students are welcome, (but keep in mind classes are taught in Chinese).
I am currently teaching a "Specialized English for Tea", English language tea terminology and Chinese language terminology , as well as translating methods and reasoning. The course is gear for the Chinese speaking student experienced or educated in Tea Studies as well as a grasp of Chinese and English language.

On June 7th, 2007 at 6:15 pm, http://wanderlustandlipstick.com/all-the-tea-in-china/ I wrote on behalf of Ten Ren Teaism Foundation. I have tried my best to translate into English about the event we will be attending. And we welcome you and others to come and see the TENFU TEA COLLEGE. The Tenfu Tea College, founded by the Tenfu Group is the world’s first professional college based on the “Chinese Tea Industry, Science, and Technology”. This will have a far reaching impact on cultural development. The college offers specialization in basic theory tea,and also an emphasis on improving of tea cultivation, processing, and production technologies. Also modern tea management techniques,improving of mechanization processes, tea and related product development, and marketing, will be part of the curriculum.Graduating students will have a solid theoretical foundation and practical expertise and to be able to apply them for many flexible applications. The school will open this autumn 2007, with an enrollment of around 300 full-time students, while the present goal is reaching an enrollment of around 3000 full-time students(future maybe more). The College has five professional fields of study: * Tea Production and Processing Technology, * Marketing and Market Development, * Food Processing and Technology, * Tea Culture, * Tourism Management. TENFU TEA COLLEGE China, Fujian, Zhangpu County, Zhangzhou CityZip code : 363202E-MAIL:tfttc@mail.tenfu.com (Chinese/English)TEL:0596-3822198 FAX:0596-3821142

TFTC (09) Tea Culture Dept. pictures
09茶文化系 this years pictures.!!!2010


专业英语 Specialized English for Tea

Classes in English. Taipei-臺北
Specialized English for Tea
Written by Steven R. Jones (Oct. 2, 2008)
Tea Cultivation, Tea Harvesting, and Tea Primary Processing

Tea Refining, Added Processing, and Packaging

Recognizing Green Teas and Oolong Teas

Recognizing Puerh Teas, Black Teas, Scented Teas, and Spiced Teas

Five Essential Factors of Tea Brewing

Small Teapot Method


Kinds of Tea Ware and Functionality

Wu-Wo Tea Ceremony Primary Language

Chinese Tea History

Japanese and Korean Tea Culture

British Tea Culture

Tea Poetry

Tenfu Tea College
Department of Tea Arts
Specialized English for Tea (fall2008)

课目:专业英语 学期别:三(1/1) 周时数:2-0
课 程
说 明


NTNU will have a Wu-Wo Tea Ceremony ( 台灣師範大學-國語教學中心--無我茶會 )



NTNU will have a Wu-Wo Tea Ceremony( 無我茶會 ) on Friday, SEP 19, 2008
Mandarin Training Center- 162 Hoping East Road, Sec. 1, Taipei, Taiwan 104


"The Leaf" website

The Leaf Tea Magazine is an online graphic, informative, and free treasure.
A great idea, and a great site. They are bring tea information to the English speaking community. Excellent English translations(as best they can possible) of Chinese tea jargon.
Free Edition * Environmentally Friendly * Reader Interactive
The most the articles and magazine is viewable in PDF format.
The Leaf Tea Magazine


China Culture is strong and long lasting

Ancestor Worship and Divination (Shang and Zhou Dynasties)
Two traditions that began in ancient China, and still continue today, are
ancestor worship and divination. Ancestor worship means worshiping and
praying to family members who lived before you, but are now dead.
Ancestor worship was based on five main ideas:
1. The world is divided into three levels: heaven, earth, and the underworld.
All of these levels are connected to each other.
2. A person is not only connected to a father and mother, but all the relatives
from the distant past .
3. The human body has two souls. One soul, called the hun, rises when a
person dies. The other, called the po, becomes a ghost.
4. A person needs to offer gifts to their ancestors in heaven, to show respect.
Most of these gifts include wine and meat. The gifts could be placed out in
nature, perhaps at the bottom of a mountain or along a river. It was very
important for the king to give these gifts, to ensure a good year ahead. They
believed that not giving these gifts could lead to natural disasters, like floods
or famines.
Ancestor worship was practiced in the village and in the family. In the
village, both in the past and today, it was common to find temples built for
ancestors. Villagers could go to these places to worship their ancestors. In
most homes, there was an altar to hold wood or paper which had the names of
dead relatives written on them.
(adapted from Visible Traces: Teacher’s Guide, Asia Society 2000)
5. In my own view which is more toward the modern world as opposed to the ancient world of how they tried to deal with the certain ideas. "5" deals with how people relate to the physical world and the nonphysical world through Tradition, Buddhism, Taoism, and Folklore Belief to some degree
The original text may be found here.


中英文陶瓷術語 Ceramics Terminology

Pottery (Ceramics) Terminology

漢英部分Chinese-English (拼音排序In Pinyin Order )
陶瓷原料 Ceramic Material
白雲土 dolomite
瓷泥petunse, petuntse, petuntze
瓷漆enamel paint, enamel
高嶺土kaolin, china clay
矽石,二氧化矽silica, SiO2
泥果,坯體clay body 泥釉slip
石灰,生石灰,氧化鈣lime, calcium oxide, CaO
氧化錫tin oxide
原材料raw material
其它 Others
斑點 speck
半透明 translucence, translucency, translucent
不滲透的 nonporous
不透明的 opaque
茶葉罐 caddy
單色的 monochrome
鍍金 gild
多色的 polychrome
高白 high white, Gaobai
工藝品 artware
鬼工,鬼爺神工 demon’s work, kuei kung
建白材料 construction/building material
景德鎮 Jingdexhen, Ching-te-chen
景泰藍 cloisonné
絕緣子 insulator
考古學 archaeology
可塑的 plastic
流變學 rheology
琉璃瓦 glazed tile 模型、模特 model
模子 mould
耐熱 heat-proof
配方 formula
盆栽 bonsai
漆器 lacquer work
器皿 ware
秦始皇陵兵馬俑life-size terra-cotta soldiers and horses in Chin tomb
青銅器 bronze work
人類學 antropology
滲透的 porous
手印,指印 finger mark
首飾盒 jewel case
絲網印刷 silk screen printing
四面體 tetrahedral
搪瓷,琺瑯 enamel
陶瓷的 ceramic
陶瓷專家,陶瓷藝術家 ceramist
陶工 potter
瓦 tile 碗 bowl
衛生潔具 sanitary ware
溫度 temperature
硬度 hardness
釉工 glazier
圓塊,雕球,瘤 knob
磚 brick
愛比克泰德Epicteus(活動於520-500 BC)古希臘陶工兼畫家
何朝宗He Chaozhong(1522-1620) Chinese ceramist in Ming Dynasty,中國明代陶瓷藝術家
希臘古甕頌'Ode on a Crecian Urn'英國詩人濟慈Keats(1795-1821)的名詩,驚嘆古希臘陶器彩繪之精美
陶瓷類型 Types of Pottery
碧玉細炻器 jasper
薄胎瓷 thin china
彩陶器,釉陶 faience
陳設瓷,擺設瓷 display china
瓷porcelain, china (China '中國'來自'Chin''秦',在英文中'中國'和'瓷'同一單詞)
赤陶 terracotta, terracotta, red earthenware
代爾夫精陶 delft
德化陶瓷 Te-hua porcelain, Dehua pottery
高溫陶瓷 refractory china
工業陶瓷 industrial ceramics
工藝瓷,美術瓷,藝術瓷art porcelain, art and craft china, art pottery, artistic china 骨瓷bone china
官瓷 mandarin porcelain
光瓷 lusterware
黑色陶器 basalt
裂變瓷 crackled porcelain
裂紋瓷 crazed china
米色陶器 creamware
青瓷 celadon
青花瓷 bule and white porcelain
輕質瓷、輕瓷 light china
日用瓷 household china, table ware
軟瓷 soft porcelain
殺菌陶瓷 antiseptic pottery
繩紋陶器 Jomon pottery
施釉陶器 slipware
炻瓷 stoneware
素彩瓷 plain porcelain
陶 earthenware
陶瓷 pottery
無釉陶、陶瓷素燒坯biscuit, unglazed ware
錫釉陶 majolica
細瓷 fine china
硬瓷 hard porcelain
赭色粘土陶器 terra sigillata
紫砂purple granulated, purple sand, terra-cotta
工藝技術 Technology
凹雕 intaglio
標記 marking
玻璃化 vitrify
車削 turning
成型 forming
沖壓,沖壓花 repousse
瓷土加工 clay processing
雕刻 carving
浮雕 relief
隔焰窯 muffle
工藝技術 technology
矽氧鍵 silicon-oxygen bond
技藝 technique, craft
間斷窯 intermittent kiln
澆鑄 casting
拉毛 sgraffito
連續窯 continuous kiln
鏤雕、鏤空 piercing
轆轤車 jigger
泥釉彩飾法 trailing
碾磨 grinding
拋光 burnishing, polishing
破裂 chip
嵌入 inlay
切刻 incising
篩子 sieve
燒製 firing
陶瓷科技 ceramics
陶輪 potter’s wheel
貼花、嵌花 appliqué, decal
凸雕,底切,拉底,底部掏槽 undercut
細裂紋 craze
性能 property
壓印 impressing
窯 kiln
印花 stamping
釉上彩 overglazed color figure
釉下彩 underglazed color figure
預加工pre-processing 粘性,粘滯性viscosity, stiffness
轉模片 jiggered piece
轉印 transfer print
裝飾 décor, decoration



Tea in 27 Languages

French: thé (pron. TAY) Spanish: té (pron. TAY) Italian: tè (pron. TAY) Portugese: chá (pron. SHA) Romania: ceai, (pron. CHAI?) German: Tee (pron. TAY) Dutch: thee (pron. TAY) Swedish, Danish Norwegian: te (pron. TAY) Polish: herbataCzech, Serb, Croatian, Bosnian: Cay ("C" with a tiny v on top, and ay) (pron. chai) Russian: Yau ("Y" with a t in it, and AU) (pron. CHAI) Hungarian: tea (pron. TEYA) Finnish: tee. (pron. TAY) Turkish: çay (pron. CHAI) Indonisia, Malay: teh, (pron. TAY) Esperanto: teo (pron. TAYO ) Greek: tsa'i (pron. chai?) Arabic: shaye.Hebrew: teh (pron. TAY ) Yiddish: tay (pron. TAY) Japanese: o cha (pron. O CHA) Swahili: chai.

Big Country Big Teas

Name Place of Origin (Province of Origin)
Long Jing Dragon Well Xi Hu (Zhe Jiang)
Bi Luo Chun Spring Snail Tai Hu (Jiang Su)
Tie Guan Yin Iron Goddess An Xi (Fu Jian)
Mao Feng Fur Peak Huang Shan (An Hui)
Yin Jan Silver Needle Jun Shan (Hu Nan)
Qi Men Hung Qi Men Red Qi Men (An Hui)
Da Hung Pao Big Red Robe Wu Yi Shan (Fu Jian)
Gua Pien Mellon Seed Liu An (An Hui)
Bai Hao Yin Jan White Fur Silver Needle Fu Ding (Fu Jian)
Puer Puer Si Mao (Yun Nan)
Wu Lung Oolong Nan Tou (Taiwan)
Yun Wu Cloud & Fog Lu Shan (Jiang Xi)
Mao Jian Fur Tip Sin Yang (Hu Nan)
Gan Lu Sweet Dew Ming Ding (Si Chuan)
Mao Jian Fur Tip Du Yun (Gui Zhou)
Muo Li Hua Jasmine Su Zhou (Jiang Su)
Yu Lu Jade Dew En Si (Hu Bei)
Zhu Cha Pearl Tea Ping Shui (Zhe Jiang)
Hou Kui Monkey King Tai Ping (An Hui)


Puer Teas(often revised sorry)

Puer: pronounced  (pronounced: poo-er)
I love drinking it but I have avoided writing about the tea called Puer Tea, there is so much misinformation…There is so much confusion about defining and even spelling of it in English, as well as Chinese... Many people are now calling a “puer tea” any post fermented tea that comes not only from Puer city but all of Yunnan as well. I have had to revise this simple little article(now larger) because much of my info/resources were writing --pu'er pu-er and pu er Pu'Er and PuEr puer... so I decide to keep with the translating logic we have agreed on which is tries to make it readable in REAL English, in this case it was easy writing an I say majority rules (or at least you can keep more people happy) "puer puer pu'er pu er pu-er pu-erh puer puEr ,,,,,,enough I think you get the point.. this spelling frenzy causes problems for non-Chinese readers when doing searchers for information about @@PUER TEA@@, and I am also talking about in Asia there are discrepancy in classification and terms also, . We need a standard in English for terms(puer)I plan to write a paper on puer teas one day. But let me share with you what I feel as of today on the topic. I talked to some guys that have a puer aging warehouse slightly heated with open water containers and closed environment, in upstate New York and they were saying that they were not noticing any aging effects on their green puers, chemistry-wise; it is too cold most of the time therefore slowing or halting any (oxidation and fermentation). Also I have heard from most collectors, the importance of circulating of fresh air, what this means is there has to be a reasonable amount of gas exchange from the aging puers. But remember if you are aging "non-puers", oolongs for example, you don’t want external gas exchange because there is enough oxygen in the sealed container. Because you only want oxidation not microbe fermentation. If you do air out your aging oolongs you need to lightly heat them again to make sure the moisture level stays around 3% and then sealed and put away, in average home living temperatures, no air and no light. Now puers are another classification of tea and the moisture optimal is around 12% . Most of my puers stay wrapped in calligraphy cotton paper and never for aging ...keep green puers with dark puers because the teas are different in composition dark puers are piled (1week to over a month) again depending on the macro and micro environments the length the pile is kept under 60 degree Celsius (°C) degrees [140'F]by rotating and churning the pile which is about a meter high and long as the room or piling room, leaves need some added water (sprinkle not flood) and after the entire dark puer processing then are packaged and can be sold. When you buy and take the dark puers home and want to store/age them in an area, remember to keep the darks from the greens ...... green puers which are non-piled puers both can be aged so you can have young dark puer and aged dark puer, and the same logic follows for the greens, young green puer can be kept with aged green puer. Ideally only the same age/type/quality/variety should be kept together; but that’s too complicated. For the average collector just have two places one for greens and one for darks. I live in a humid(sub-tropical) hot environment which they love and I don’t, but they outnumber me, heheheh…Remember Puers like some humidity but if stored in tropical areas of 80 to 90's RH, there is the possibility of molds and bacteria that will adversely alter the Puers over time, the goal of aging is to let the puers oxidize not harvest mold. Also you can’t make gold out of lead, so if your green puer is young and of bad leaf quality (weak and without potential raw material being the Yunnan puer fresh leaves), don’t expect miracles. Some of my young aged green puer stock I can sample in about three to four years and it’s nice, not great "yet" but I am happy with the amber/light red color. But green puers should age at least 10 years, 20 is better, and 30 is great. When you buy a new green puer, you need too try it, it should have what I call an ornery taste or spicy-sharp taste. And dark puers don’t change much in character from aging, but I have had some with tea flavor notes of ginseng(no added or scented ginseng). But the green-meanies do change, I should say the potential might be there,, again remember you get what you paid for, and take good care of them!!!!

Classification and primary process of the two main types of Puerh

As of 2008 only large-leaf variety from Yunnan can be called a Puerh. Specific primary processes required: Puerh needs sun fixation and sun drying.

Green Puer青普: sun fixation曬青 > rolling揉捻 > sun drying曬乾

Dark Puer熟普: sun fixation曬青 > rolling揉捻 > piling 渥堆 > sun drying曬乾

Added processes: green Puer and dark Puerh can be compress into cakes and aged.
Recipe number of puer teas "xxxx", Factory numbers (fourth digit in recipe):
1.Kunming Tea Factory
2.Menghai Tea Factory
3.Xiaguan Tea Factory
4.Lan Cang Tea Factory[30] or Feng Qing Tea Factory
5.Pu'er Tea Factory (now Pu'er Tea group Co.Ltd )
6.Six Famous Tea Mountain Factory
7.unknown / not specified
8.Haiwan Tea Factory and Long Sheng Tea Factory

future topics to cover are--arbor, wild, ancient, old, plantation--according bush or tree state, and propagation of single leaf cuttings method vs. natural propagation of indigenous wild tea trees and slight variations due to slight mutations.

----steven --(revisions sep27,'08; feb,'09; apr2010,2010.8)-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Tea history

Circa 2700 B.C. Chinese Emperor Shen Nung discovers tea Circa 725 B.C. T’ang Dynasty: Ch’a, tea in Chinese, becomes part of daily life 805 A.D. Dengo Daishi, Buddhist patron saint of Japanese Tea, introduces tea growing in Japan 1191 After centuries of neglect, the cultivation of tea in Japan is revived by the Buddhist Abbot Yesai, who subsequently published the first Japanese tea book. 1500 Ming Dynasty: in imitation of spouted wine earthenware, the first teapots were made at Yi-Xang, near Shanghai famous for its clays. Black, green and oolong tea become prevalent. 1610 Tea reaches Europe for the first time, carried by the Dutch from a trading station in Bantam, Java. They buy tea from Chinese merchants, who speak the Amoy dialect and therefore refer to the product as "Tea". 1623 The first annual public Japanese tea ritual, known as the "Tea Journey" is held. 1657 Garway’s Coffee house in London holds the first public sale of tea. Garway’s starts to advertise the "Vertues of the leaf tea". 1680 Madame de la Sabliere, wife of the French poet, introduces France to the custom of drinking tea with milk. Pouring the milk into the cup of hot tea cooled the tea slightly, making it less apt to break her cherished eggshell porcelain tea cups. 1773 On December 16, at the Boston Tea Party, American colonists dump the entire Boston consignment of the John Company’s tea into the harbor in protest of the exorbitant tea tax. 1856 The first tea is planted in the Darjeeling District of Northern India. 1900 The last camel caravan carrying tea departs Peking for Russia. During the same year, the last link of the Trans-Siberian railroad is completed. 1904 Due to the unbearable heat, iced tea is invented at the St. Louis World’s fair. Dr Shepard’s South Carolina grown tea wins "Best in Show" medal. 1908 Mr. William Sullivan, tea merchant in New York, inadvertently invents the tea bag. 1925 Africa passes the million-pound mark in tea shipments. Brooke Bond begins buying land and planting tea in Kenya. 1958 Three Hundred years after China tea was first introduced to England, it is sold there for the first time by its Chinese producers."Tea and Water give each other life," the Professor was saying. "The tea is still alive. This tea has tea and water vitality," he added, "...Afterwards, the taste still happens... It rises like velvet... It is a performance." -Jason Goodwin, The Gunpowder Gardens "Talk and tea is his specialty," said Giles. "He has about five cups of tea a day. But he works splendidly when we are looking." -Agatha Christie, Sleeping Murder "And so it continued all day, wynde after wynde, From a room beyond came the whistle of a teakettle. 'Now, you really must join me. I've some marvelous Darjeeling, and some delicious petit fours a friend of mine gave me for Christmas." -Martha Grimes, The Man with a Load of Mischief "While we got hotter and thirstier as the heat beat down on us. The somebody would call in a voice full of elation" -Arthur Godfrey "'The tea is coming!' ...she may want a martini, but make her drink tea." -Alice Taylor, To School Through the Fields "It was as if we were at the heart of a maze. We were overwhelmed by the enormity of the tasks ahead. Mary had given us a bottle of milk and a spoonful of loose tea, and so, unable to decide what to do, we did what all Irish men and women do: we had tea. Suddenly the sun appeared and not for the first or last time we felt it uplifting us and changing everything. It seemed like a holiday." -Niall Williams and Christine Breen, O Come Ye Back to Ireland "Talk and tea is his specialty," said Giles. "He has Come along inside... We'll see if tea and buns can make the world a better place." -The Wind in the Willows "When all is complete deep in the teapot, when tea, mint, and sugar have completely diffused throughout the water, coloring and saturating it...then a glass will be filled and poured back into the mixture, blending it further. The comes waiting. Motionless waiting. Finally, from high up, like some green cataract whose sight and sound mesmerize, the tea will once again cascade into a glass. Now it can be drunk, dreamily, forehead bowed, fingers held wide away from the scalding glass." -Simone Jacquemard, Le Mariage Berbere "My hour for tea is half-past five, and my buttered toast waits for nobody." -Wilkie Collins, The Woman in White "On the hob was a little brass kettle, hissing and boiling; spread upon the floor was a warm, thick rug; before the fire was a folding-chair, unfolded and with cushions upon it, by the chair was a small folding-table, unfolded, covered with a white cloth, and upon it were spread small covered dishes, a cup and saucer, and a tea-pot; on the bed were new, warm coverings, a curious wadded silk robe, and some books. The little, cold, miserable room seemed changed into Fairyland. It was actually warm and glowing. " -Frances Hodgson Burnett, Sara Crewe; or What Happened at Miss Minchin's "He boils milk with fresh ginger, a quarter of a vanilla bean, and tea that is so dark and fine-leaved that it looks like black dust. He strains it and puts cane sugar in both our cups. There's something euphorically invigorating and yet filling about it. It tastes the way I imagine the Far East must taste." -Peter Hoeg, Smilla's Sense of Snow "The mug from the washstand was used as Becky's tea cup, and the tea was so delicious that it was not necessary to pretend that it was anything but tea." -Frances Hodgson Burnett "A Little Princess...it's always tea-time... " -Lewis Carroll, Alice in Wonderland "I hope next time when we meet, we won't be fighting each other. Instead we will be drinking tea together." - Jackie Chan, Rumble in the Bronx "Bill Bryson, Notes from a Small Island He brewed his tea in a blue china pot, poured it into a chipped white cup with forget-me-nots on the handle, and dropped in a dollop of honey and cream. He sat by the window, cup in hand, watching the first snow fall. 'I am', he sighed deeply, 'contented as a clam. I am a most happy man." -Ethel Pochocki, Wildflower Tea "Cynthia came in quietly and set a cup of tea before him. He kissed her hand, inexpressibly grateful, and she went back into the kitchen. When we view the little things with thanksgiving, even they become big things." -Jan Karon, These High, Green Hills "Tea. Earl Grey. Hot. And whoever this "Earl Grey" fellow is, I'd like to have a word with him... " -Jean-Luc Picard, Star Trek, The Next Generation "Deep Space 9 Pour me a little more tea, would you dear? I can drink it till it comes out of my ears." -Garek, Star Trek, "If you are cold, tea will warm you; If you are too heated, it will cool you; If you are depressed, it will cheer you; If you are excited, it will calm you "Thank God for tea! What would the world do without tea! How did it exist? I am glad I was not born before tea." -William Gladstone, British Prime Minister. "My dear, if you could give me a cup of tea to clear my muddle of a head I should better understand your affairs." -Charles Dickens "[I am] a hardened and shameless tea drinker, who for twenty years diluted his meals with only the infusion of the fascinating plant; who with tea amused the evening, with tea solaced the midnight, and with tea welcomed the morning. -Samuel Johnson "I always fear that creation will expire before teatime." -Sidney Smith "The Infusion of a China plant sweetened with the pith of an Indian Cane." -Joseph Addison "Ecstasy is a glass full of tea and a piece of sugar in the mouth" -Alexander Puskin "I don't drink coffee; I take tea, my dear." -Sting, An Englishman in New York "Tea with lemon please" -Jerry Seinfeld, Seinfeld China's Tea CulturePeople throughout China drink tea daily. Because of the geographic location and climate, different places grow various kinds of tea. In general, there are five kinds of tea classified according to different technique involved in the making of tea: · Green tea - Longjin · Wulong · Scented tea - Jasmine tea · Black tea · compressed tea. In the past dynasties, people not only formed a special way of tea-drinking, but also developed an art form called tea-drinking. This art form comprises of many aspects. The most noticeable ones are the making of tea, the way of brewing, the drinking utensils such as tea pot. The art of making tea is called "Cha dao", which was soon accepted as one of the most important cultures that Japan learned from China. In Hangzhou, there is a tea museum, the only national museum of its kind, in which there are detailed description of the historic development of tea culture in China.China, the Homeland of Tea China is the homeland of tea. Of the three major beverages of the world-- tea, coffee and cocoa-- tea is consumed by the largest number of people in the world. China has tea-shrubs as early as five to six thousand years ago, and human cultivation of tea plants dates back two thousand years. Tea from China, along with her silk and porcelain, began to be known the world over more than a thousand years ago and has since always been an important Chinese export. At present more than forty countries in the world grow tea with Asian countries producing 90% of the world's total output. All tea trees in other countries have their origin directly or indirectly in China. The word for tea leaves or tea as a drink in many countries are derivatives from the Chinese character "cha." The Russians call it "cha'i", which sounds like "chaye" (tea leaves) as it is pronounced in northern China, and the English word "tea" sounds similar to the pronunciation of its counterpart in Xiamen (Amoy). The Japanese character for tea is written exactly the same as it is in Chinese, though pronounced with a slight difference. The habit of tea drinking spread to Japan in the 6th century, but it was not introduced to Europe and America till the 17th and 18th centuries. Now the number of tea drinkers in the world is legion and is still on the increase.Types of Chinese Tea Chinese tea may be classified into five types of teas according to the different methods by which it is processed. Green tea Green tea is the variety which keeps the original colour of the tea leaves without fermentation during processing. This category consists mainly of Longjing tea of Zhejiang Province, Maofeng of Huangshan Mountain in Anhui Province and Biluochun produced in Jiangsu.Black tea Black tea, known as "red tea" (hong cha) in China, is the category which is fermented before baking; it is a later variety developed on the basis of the green tea. The best brands of black tea are Qihong of Anhui , Dianhong of Yunnan, Suhong of Jiangsu, Chuanhong of Sichuan and Huhong of Hunan.Wulong tea This represents a variety half way between the green and the black teas, being made after partial fermentation. It is a specialty from the provinces on China's southeast coast: Fujian, Guangdong and Taiwan.Compressed tea This is the kind of tea which is compressed and hardened into a certain shape. It is good for transport and storage and is mainly supplied to the ethnic minorities living in the border areas of the country. As compressed tea is black in color in its commercial form, so it is also known in China as "black tea". Most of the compressed tea is in the form of bricks; it is, therefore, generally called "brick tea", though it is sometimes also in the form of cakes and bowls. It is mainly produced in Hubei, Hunan, Sichuan and Yunnan provinces.Scented tea This kind of tea is made by mixing fragrant flowers in the tea leaves in the course of processing. The flowers commonly used for this purpose are jasmine and magnolia among others. Jasmine tea is a well-known favorite with the northerners of China and with a growing number of foreigners.Advantages of Tea-Drinking Tea has been one of the daily necessities in China since time immemorial. Countless numbers of people like to have their after meal tea. In summer or warm climate, tea seems to dispel the heat and bring on instant cool together with a feeling of relaxation. For this reason, tea-houses abound in towns and market villages in South China and provide elderly retirees with the locales to meet and chat over a cup of tea. Medically, the tea leaf contains a number of chemicals, of which 20-30% is tannic acid, known for its anti-inflammatory and germicidal properties. It also contains an alkaloid (5%, mainly caffeine), a stimulant for the nerve centre and the process of metabolism. Tea with the aromatics in it may help resolve meat and fat and thus promote digestion. It is, therefore, of special importance to people who live mainly on meat, like many of the ethnic minorities in China. A popular proverb among them says, "Rather go without salt for three days than without tea for a single day." Tea is also rich in various vitamins and, for smokers, it helps to discharge nicotine out of the system. After wining, strong tea may prove to be a sobering pick-me-up. The above, however, does not go to say that the stronger the tea, the more advantages it will yield. Too much tannic acid will affect the secretion of the gastric juice, irritate the membrane of the stomach and cause indigestion or constipation. Strong tea taken just before bedtime will give rise to occasional insomnia. Constant drinking of over-strong tea may induce heart and blood-pressure disorders in some people, reduce the milk of a breast-feeding mother, and put a brown color on the teeth of young people. But it is not difficult to ward off these undesirable effects: just don't make your tea too strong. Tea Production A new tea-plant must grow for five years before its leaves can be picked and, at 30 years of age, it will be too old to be productive. The trunk of the old plant must then be cut off to force new stems to grow out of the roots in the coming year. By repeated rehabilitation in this way, a plant may serve for about l00 years . For the fertilization of tea gardens, Soya-bean cakes or other varieties of organic manure are generally used, and seldom chemical fertilizers. When pests are discovered, the affected plants will be removed to prevent their spread, and also to avoid the use of pesticides. The season of tea-picking depends on local climate and varies from area to area. On the shores of West Lake in Hangzhou, where the famous green tea Longjing (Dragon Well) comes from, picking starts from the end of March and lasts through October, altogether 20-30 times from the same plants at intervals of seven to ten days. With a longer interval, the quality of the tea will deteriorate. A skilled woman picker can only gather 600 grams (a little over a pound) of green tea leaves in a day. The new leaves must be parched in tea cauldrons. This work , which used to be done manually, has been largely mechanized. Top-grade Dragon Well tea, however, still has to be stir-parched by hand, doing only 250 grams every half hour. The tea-cauldrons are heated electrically to a temperature of about 25oC or 74oF. It takes four pounds of fresh leaves to produce one pound of parched tea. The best Dragon Well tea is gathered several days before Qingming (Pure Brightness, 5th solar term) when new twigs have just begun to grow and carry "one leaf and a bud." To make one kilogram (2.2 lbs) of finished tea, 60, 000 tender leaves have to be plucked. In the old days Dragon Well tea of this grade was meant solely for the imperial household; it was, therefore, known as "tribute tea". For the processes of grinding, parching, rolling, shaping and drying other grades of tea various machines have been developed and built, turning out about 100 kilograms of finished tea an hour and relieving the workers from much of their drudgery. Tea-Producing Areas Tea is produced in vast areas of China from Hainan lsland down in the extreme south to Shandong Province in the north, from Tibet in the southwest to Taiwan across the Straits, totaling more than 20 provinces. These may be divided into four major areas: The Jiangnan area It lies south of the middle and lower reaches of the Changjiang (Yangtze) River, and is the most prolific of China's tea-growing areas. Most of its output is the green variety; some black tea is also produced.The Jiangbei area This refers to a large area north of the same river, where the average temperature is 2-3 Centigrade degrees lower than in the Jiangnan area. Green tea is the principal variety turned out there, but Shaanxi and Gansu provinces, which are also parts of this area. produce compressed tea for supply to the minority areas in the Northwest.The Southwest area This embraces Sichuan, Yunnan, Guizhou and Tibet, producing black, green as well as compressed teas. Pu'er tea of Yunnan Province enjoys a good sale in China and abroad.The Lingnan area This area , consisting of the southern provinces of Guangdong, Guangxi, Fujian and taiwan, produces Wulong tea, which is renowned both at home and abroad.Tea Culture The author ponders the importance of creating a tea culture, concluding that a retail business that doesn't take the time to build its own level of tea refinement is missing the big picture. When you have succeeded in bringing people together in your tea or coffeehouse, they should remember all the little things - the right advice, the gentle suggestion, the careful selection. -Tomislav Podreka culture, v.t.; 1. to cultivate; to refine; to educate. Almost every country has a tea culture. This truism illustrates the depth, subtlety, philosophy, and artistry of a myriad of societies. The Chinese are strikingly patient with their tea, treating it with the reverence of a 5000-year-old sage. The English regard tea as an inalienable right, a time of day to put aside the stress of the moment and recompose. The United States has only recently looked at tea as a means to an end. Why are Americans changing their tune? Perhaps due to the inherent healthiness of the beverage or the implied peace and balance imparted on tea by cultures throughout the world. A social migration is also occurring, as people immigrating to the U.S. bring with them their security blankets. This is something to which I relate fully, as 1, amongst the huddled masses, arrived from Australia not at Lady Liberty's feet, but at the very alluring Hawaii airport. When I sat down to write this article, I looked up the word culture expecting to find an all-encompassing definition. No one entry, however, suitably defined what I hoped to express. What I found first was the obvious definition of culture as greater than any one thing or interpretation, just as tea is more than any one leaf style or flavor profile. And second, I delighted in the obvious metaphors behind other entries, which aptly illustrate the importance of cultivating and growing not just your business, but yourself, and the way such care will impact your success. So what does a retail culture mean to you, and why is tea such an important purveyor of this particular civility? Culture creates the microclimate within your business. It lends an air of authenticity, originality, credibility, or whatever else you hope to convey. But most of all, it reveals your business persona -- who you are and who your customers perceive you to be. Tea is an important player here because it is a palpable illustration of culture. When you think of the English, you think of afternoon tea. Think of the Japanese and you probably envision the Japanese tea ceremony or a kimono-clad woman serving tea. Walk through Chinatown anywhere in the U.S. and you will see patrons cozying around a table in a restaurant over a pot of tea. All of these traditions feature a common thread -- they bring people together. Q: What do you want to see in your establishment? A: People. Q: What's better than people? A: People bringing other people. culture, n. 1. the act or process of tilling and preparing the earth for crops; cultivation of soil. Sometimes as a cultivator, you are lucky enough to have great soil and produce great fruits year after year. Most of us in business realize this is not often the reality. Cultivating the fruits of our labor requires great care and rigorous preparation without respite. For most of us, to create a place we would like to patronize ourselves is the ultimate ideal (not too daffy a notion considering the amount of time we spend at work). The first step in creating an ambiance and personal culture is to identify the culture you are familiar and comfortable with, and to allow some of the craziness to seep through. That's what makes each and every one of us unique. A few great examples are Tea and Sympathy and Wild Lily Tea Room in New York City. The former was established by a pair of English ex-pats who created a home for themselves with their business. Not afraid to allow their personal quirkiness to shine through, the couple built Tea and Sympathy into a place to be seen. It's extremely popular with both locals and tourists. Wild Lily Tea Room illustrates the careful respect of owner Ines Sun's Taiwanese culture, presenting a picture of serenity, amiability and warmth in a tiny nook. The shop serves tea exclusively and focuses on marvelous oolongs. Two very different tearooms, two very different examples of ethnocentric influence. Tealuxe in Boston quite obviously reflects the proprietor's esoteric love of a particular era and feel -- in this case, the luxury liners of the '30s and '40s -- while capturing the youth and spontaneity of nearby Cambridge and the university scene. Teaism in Washington, D.C., fuses several Eastern cultures in a uniquely western way, conveying the charm of an Indian food vendor/chaiwalla with the amenities of a restaurant and the charm of a bed and breakfast. Locals and I gather daily to soak up the atmosphere simply read the paper while sipping Darjeeling and eating mango chutney. These tearooms may sound like they're stretching to create a tea culture in the U.S. that doesn't exist. But remember settlers in New Amsterdam were drinking tea before Britain. In fact, when English took Manhattan, the island was consuming more tea than the entire United Kingdom! The U.S. has a tea history. It was for the love of tea that U.S. fought for independence. It's up to you to rediscover the U.S. tea culture and build upon it. culture, n. 2. the raising, improvement or development of some plant, animal or product. Do not be afraid to grow with your business. Rome wasn't built in a day, but today we know that when in Rome, do not drive with the natives! That important piece of advice aside, the legends, myths, people, and places of Rome all contribute to the culture that is Roman. You must continue to build your tea culture in similar fashion. Don't put a half-hearted, effort into your shop. The key words in this definition of culture are: raising (of standards), improvement and development. Still water becomes undrinkable. Do not allow your customers to accept the familiarity that leads to boredom. It is as simple as insisting -- in whatever small and subtle way -- on always raising the standard of service, improving the quality of merchandise and developing your business. The Japanese tea ceremony did not become what it is today without the careful yet chaotic combination of time and thought. All things do not always go as planned; sometimes this is for the best. culture, n. 3. improvement, refinement or development by study, training, etc. It's difficult to become the best at what you do -- both in reality and by reputation. It requires fine tuning that is not always apparent. When you have succeeded in bringing people together in your tea- or coffeehouse, they should remember all the little things -- the right advice, the gentle suggestion, the careful selection. All of these details will result from studying your craft, refining according to your business needs and improving because of your love of the business. You must understand your personal culture and the unique way you matured as a person. It will distinguish you from your competitors. This understanding will help establish you as a neighborhood institution. For example, if you serve chai, use a loose-leaf product and add condensed milk. This is closer in form to the masala chai a native of India would drink. Initially this would seem to be nothing but bother and expense. Surprise! Initiative is its own reward. Not only will your product stand out amongst the competition, but it will probably be less expensive and more versatile than a chai concentrate. You could serve tea as Russian rather than Russian tea. Invite people to ask, "What's that about?" Then take the opportunity to quietly and concisely explain that the addition of lemon comes to us from the Russian culture, therefore you can serve any tea as Russian by adding lemon. Create invitations to conversations. Not only will it help expand your patrons' palates, but it will build your esteem in their eyes. I often hear tea and coffee referred to almost as competitors. Absolute rot! One helps the other. Without entrenched coffee businesses, tea would have less of a platform from which to leap. Ironically, tea was introduced in Europe in 1650 via coffeehouses. In England during the late 1600s, most of the establishments were called coffeehouses despite the fact that tea was the beverage of choice. Of course coffee is the inveterate beverage culture in the U.S., but both coffee and tea have their place and moments as we desire them. Understanding and educating yourself about the tangible cultures of tea will open doors to ways of deepening your relationship with coffee, if for no other reason than because you will take time to read more of the myths, legends and history surrounding coffee. Or maybe you'll decide to take a page out of a particular tea ritual and apply it to your coffee presentation. "CULTURE CTREATES THE MICROCLIMATE WITHIN YOUR BUSINESS. IT LENDS AN AIR OF AUTHENTICITY, ORIGINAILTY, CREDIBILITY, OR WHATEVER ELSE YOU HOPETO CONVEY." culture, n. 4. the concepts, habits, skills, arts, instruments, institutions, etc. of a given people in a given period; civilization. Living in the U.S. at this moment is extremely exciting. We are all present during a time when we, as a society, are looking for ways to express our particular identity as a culture. We want to distinguish ourselves from other cultures. The U.S. is a young country still looking for its boundaries and depth. And for these reasons (and many others), tea is here for the long term, destined to forever be a part of U.S. culture. Unlike fads that come and go, tea has a past, present and magnificent future. It is a beverage steeped in substance and thought, and has a vast variety of nuances to satisfy any taste. Tea, unlike other trends, gives us a reason to become attached to and involved with the beverage, with friends who share it with us, and with the people who introduce it to us. Take a little time to think about your business. If you operate it with your heart and soul, you will endear yourself to the hearts and souls of your patrons. Tomislav Podreka is president of Serendipitea, a tea wholesaler and importer based in Ridgefield, Conn. He can be reached at: 1-888-Tea-LifeThere was a table set out under a tree in front of the house, and the March Hare and the Hatter were having tea at it: a Dormouse was sitting between them, fast asleep, and the other two were using it as a cushion, resting their elbows on it, and talking over its head. "Take some more tea," the March Hare said to Alice very earnestly."I've had nothing yet," Alice replied in an offended tone, "so I can't take more." Twinkle, twinkle little batHow I wonder what you're at!Up above the world you fly,Like a tea-tray in the sky.Lewis Carroll (Charles Lutwidge Dodgson) (1832-1898) Alice in Of historical note, tea is nearly 5,000 years old and was discovered, as legend has it, in 2737 b.c. by a Chinese emperor when some tea leaves accidentally blew into a pot of boiling water. In the 1600s tea became popular throughout Europe and the American colonies. Since colonial days, tea has played a role in American culture and customs. Today American schoolchildren learn about the famous Boston Tea Party protesting the British tea tax -- one of the acts leading to the Revolutionary War. During this century, two major American contributions to the tea industry occurred. In 1904, iced tea was created at the World's Fair in St. Louis, and in 1908, Thomas Sullivan of New York developed the concept of tea in a bag.Tea breaks down into three basic types: black, green and oolong. In the U.S., over 90 percent of the tea consumed is black tea, which has been fully oxidized or fermented and yields a hearty-flavored, amber brew. Some of the popular black teas include English Breakfast (good breakfast choice since its hearty flavor mixes well with milk), Darjeeling (a blend of Himalayan teas with a flowery bouquet suited for lunch) and Orange Pekoe (a blend of Ceylon teas that is the most widely used of the tea blends).Green tea skips the oxidizing step. It has a more delicate taste and is light green/golden in color. Green tea, a staple in the Orient, is gaining popularity in the U.S. due in part to recent scientific studies linking green tea drinking with reduced cancer risk. Oolong tea, popular in China, is partly oxidized and is a cross between black and green tea in color and taste.While flavored teas evolve from these three basic teas, herbal teas contain no true tea leaves. Herbal and "medicinal" teas are created from the flowers, berries, peels, seeds, leaves and roots of many different plants. The Tea TraditionThe Legendary Origins of Tea.The story of tea began in ancient China over 5,000 years ago. According to legend, the Shen Nong, an early emperor was a skilled ruler, creative scientist and patron of the arts. His far-sighted edicts required, among other things, that all drinking water be boiled as a hygienic precaution. One summer day while visiting a distant region of his realm, he and the court stopped to rest. In accordance with his ruling, the servants began to boil water for the court to drink. Dried leaves from the near by bush fell into the boiling water, and a brown liquid was infused into the water. As a scientist, the Emperor was interested in the new liquid, drank some, and found it very refreshing. And so, according to legend, tea was created. (This myth maintains such a practical narrative, that many mythologists believe it may relate closely to the actual events, now lost in ancient history.)The Chinese InfluenceTea consumption spread throughout the Chinese culture reaching into every aspect of the society. In 800 A.D. Lu Yu wrote the first definitive book on tea, the Ch'a Ching. This amazing man was orphaned as a child and raised by scholarly Buddhist monks in one of China's finest monasteries. However, as a young man, he rebelled against the discipline of priestly training which had made him a skilled observer. His fame as a performer increased with each year, but he felt his life lacked meaning. Finally, in mid-life, he retired for five years into seclusion. Drawing from his vast memory of observed events and places, he codified the various methods of tea cultivation and preparation in ancient China. The vast definitive nature of his work, projected him into near sainthood within his own lifetime. Patronized by the Emperor himself, his work clearly showed the Zen Buddhist philosophy to which he was exposed as a child. It was this form of tea service that Zen Buddhist missionaries would later introduce to imperial Japan.The Japanese InfluenceThe first tea seeds were brought to Japan by the returning Buddhist priest Yeisei, who had seen the value of tea in China in enhancing religious mediation. As a result, he is known as the "Father of Tea" in Japan. Because of this early association, tea in Japan has always been associated with Zen Buddhism. Tea received almost instant imperial sponsorship and spread rapidly from the royal court and monasteries to the other sections of Japanese society.Tea was elevated to an art form resulting in the creation of the Japanese Tea Ceremony ("Cha-no-yu" or "the hot water for tea"). The best description of this complex art form was probably written by the Irish-Greek journalist-historian Lafcadio Hearn, one of the few foreigners ever to be granted Japanese citizenship during this era. He wrote from personal observation, "The Tea ceremony requires years of training and practice to graduate in art...yet the whole of this art, as to its detail, signifies no more than the making and serving of a cup of tea. The supremely important matter is that the act be performed in the most perfect, most polite, most graceful, most charming manner possible".Such a purity of form, of expression prompted the creation of supportive arts and services. A special form of architecture (chaseki) developed for "tea houses", based on the duplication of the simplicity of a forest cottage. The cultural/artistic hostesses of Japan, the Geishi, began to specialize in the presentation of the tea ceremony. As more and more people became involved in the excitement surrounding tea, the purity of the original Zen concept was lost. The tea ceremony became corrupted, boisterous and highly embellished. "Tea Tournaments" were held among the wealthy where nobles competed among each other for rich prizes in naming various tea blends. Rewarding winners with gifts of silk, armor, and jewelry was totally alien to the original Zen attitude of the ceremony.Three great Zen priests restored tea to its original place in Japanese society:1. Ikkyu (1394-1481)-a prince who became a priest and was successful in guiding the nobles away from their corruption of the tea ceremony. 2. Murata Shuko (1422-1502)-the student of Ikkyu and very influential in re-introducing the Tea ceremony into Japanese society. 3. Sen-no Rikkyu (1521-1591)-priest who set the rigid standards for the ceremony, largely used intact today. Rikyo was successful in influencing the Shogun Toyotomi Hideyoshi, who became Japan's greatest patron of the "art of tea". A brilliant general, strategist, poet, and artist this unique leader facilitated the final and complete integration of tea into the pattern of Japanese life. So complete was this acceptance, that tea was viewed as the ultimate gift, and warlords paused for tea before battles. Europe Learns of Tea.While tea was at this high level of development in both Japan and China, information concerning this then unknown beverage began to filter back to Europe. Earlier caravan leaders had mentioned it, but were unclear as to its service format or appearance. (One reference suggests the leaves be boiled, salted, buttered, and eaten!) The first European to personally encounter tea and write about it was the Portuguese Jesuit Father Jasper de Cruz in 1560. Portugal, with her technologically advanced navy, had been successful in gaining the first right of trade with China. It was as a missionary on that first commercial mission that Father de Cruz had tasted tea four years before.The Portuguese developed a trade route by which they shipped their tea to Lisbon, and then Dutch ships transported it to France, Holland, and the Baltic countries. (At that time Holland was politically affiliated with Portugal. When this alliance was altered in 1602, Holland, with her excellent navy, entered into full Pacific trade in her own right.)Tea Comes to EuropeWhen tea finally arrived in Europe, Elizabeth I had more years to live, and Rembrandt was only six years old. Because of the success of the Dutch navy in the Pacific, tea became very fashionable in the Dutch capital, the Hague. This was due in part to the high cost of the tea (over $100 per pound) which immediately made it the domain of the wealthy. Slowly, as the amount of tea imported increased, the price fell as the volume of sale expanded. Initially available to the public in apothecaries along with such rare and new spices as ginger and sugar, by 1675 it was available in common food shops throughout Holland.As the consumption of tea increased dramatically in Dutch society, doctors and university authorities argued back and forth as to the negative and/or positive benefits of tea. Known as "tea heretics", the public largely ignored the scholarly debate and continued to enjoy their new beverage though the controversy lasted from 1635 to roughly 1657. Throughout this period France and Holland led Europe in the use of tea.As the craze for things oriental swept Europe, tea became part of the way of life. The social critic Marie de Rabutin-Chantal, the Marquise de Seven makes the first mention in 1680 of adding milk to tea. During the same period, Dutch inns provided the first restaurant service of tea. Tavern owners would furnish guests with a portable tea set complete with a heating unit. The independent Dutchman would then prepare tea for himself and his friends outside in the tavern's garden. Tea remained popular in France for only about fifty years, being replaced by a stronger preference for wine, chocolate, and exotic coffees.Tea Comes to AmericaBy 1650 the Dutch were actively involved in trade throughout the Western world. Peter Stuyvesant brought the first tea to America to the colonists in the Dutch settlement of New Amsterdam (later re-named New York by the English). Settlers here were confirmed tea drinkers. And indeed, on acquiring the colony, the English found that the small settlement consumed more tea at that time then all of England put together.Tea Arrives in EnglandGreat Britain was the last of the three great sea-faring nations to break into the Chinese and East Indian trade routes. This was due in part to the unsteady ascension to the throne of the Stuarts and the Cromwellian Civil War. The first samples of tea reached England between 1652 and 1654. Tea quickly proved popular enough to replace ale as the national drink of England.As in Holland, it was the nobility that provided the necessary stamp of approval and so insured its acceptance. King Charles II had married, while in exile, the Portuguese Infanta Catherine de Braganza (1662). Charles himself had grown up in the Dutch capital. As a result, both he and his Portuguese bride were confirmed tea drinkers. When the monarchy was re-established, the two rulers brought this foreign tea tradition to England with them. As early as 1600 Elizabeth I had founded the John company for the purpose of promoting Asian trade. When Catherine de Braganza married Charles she brought as part of her dowry the territories of Tangier and Bombay. Suddenly, the John Company had a base of operations.The John CompanyThe John Company was granted the unbelievably wide monopoly of all trade east of the Cape of Good Hope and west of Cape Horn. Its powers were almost without limit and included among others the right to:· Legally acquire territory and govern it. · Coin money. · Raise arms and build forts. · Form foreign alliances. · Declare war. · Conclude peace. · Pass laws. · Try and punish law breakers. It was the single largest, most powerful monopoly to ever exist in the world. And its power was based on the importation of tea.At the same time, the newer East India Company floundered against such competition. Appealing to Parliament for relief, the decision was made to merge the John Company and the East India Company (1773). Their re-drafted charts gave the new East India Company a complete and total trade monopoly on all commerce in China and India. As a result, the price of tea was kept artificially high, leading to later global difficulties for the British crown.Afternoon Tea in EnglandTea mania swept across England as it had earlier spread throughout France and Holland. Tea importation rose from 40,000 pounds in 1699 to an annual average of 240,000 pounds by 1708. Tea was drunk by all levels of society.Prior to the introduction of tea into Britain, the English had two main meals-breakfast and dinner. Breakfast was ale, bread and beef. Dinner was a long, massive meal at the end of the day. It was no wonder that Anna, the Duchess of Bedford (1788-1861) experienced a "sinking feeling" in the late afternoon. Adopting the European tea service format, she invited friends to join her for an additional afternoon meal at five o'clock in her rooms at Belvoir Castle. The menu centered around small cakes, bread and butter sandwiches, assorted sweets, and, of course, tea. This summer practice proved so popular, the Duchess continued it when she returned to London, sending cards to her friends asking them to join her for "tea and a walking the fields." (London at that time still contained large open meadows within the city.) The practice of inviting friends to come for tea in the afternoon was quickly picked up by other social hostesses. A common pattern of service soon merged. The first pot of tea was made in the kitchen and carried to the lady of the house who waited with her invited guests, surrounded by fine porcelain from China. The first pot was warmed by the hostess from a second pot (usually silver) that was kept heated over a small flame. Food and tea was then passed among the guests, the main purpose of the visiting being conversation.Tea CuisineTea cuisine quickly expanded in range to quickly include wafer thin crustless sandwiches, shrimp or fish pates, toasted breads with jams, and regional British pastries such as scones (Scottish) and crumpets (English).At this time two distinct forms of tea services evolved: "High" and "Low". "Low" Tea (served in the low part of the afternoon) was served in aristocratic homes of the wealthy and featured gourmet tidbits rather than solid meals. The emphasis was on presentation and conversation. "High" Tea or "Meat Tea" was the main or "High" meal of the day. It was the major meal of the middle and lower classes and consisted of mostly full dinner items such as roast beef, mashed potatoes, peas, and of course, tea.Coffee HousesTea was the major beverage served in the coffee houses, but they were so named because coffee arrived in England some years before tea. Exclusively for men, they were called "Penny Universities" because for a penny any man could obtain a pot of tea, a copy of the newspaper, and engage in conversation with the sharpest wits of the day. The various houses specialized in selected areas of interest, some serving attorneys, some authors, others the military. They were the forerunner of the English gentlemen's private club. One such beverage house was owned by Edward Lloyd and was favored by shipowners, merchants and marine insurers. That simple shop was the origin of Lloyd's, the worldwide insurance firm. Attempts to close the coffee houses were made throughout the eighteenth century because of the free speech they encouraged, but such measures proved so unpopular they were always quickly revoked.Tea GardensExperiencing the Dutch "tavern garden teas", the English developed the idea of Tea Gardens. Here ladies and gentlemen took their tea out of doors surrounded by entertainment such as orchestras, hidden arbors, flowered walks, bowling greens, concerts, gambling, or fireworks at night. It was at just such a Tea Garden that Lord Nelson, who defeated Napoleon by sea, met the great love of his life, Emma, later Lady Hamilton. Women were permitted to enter a mixed, public gathering for the first time without social criticism. At the gardens were public, British society mixed here freely for the first time, cutting across lines of class and birth.Tipping as a response to proper service developed in the Tea Gardens of England. Small, locked wooden boxes were placed on the tables throughout the Garden. Inscribed on each were the letters "T.I.P.S." which stood for the sentence "To Insure Prompt Service". If a guest wished the waiter to hurry (and so insure the tea arrived hot from the often distant kitchen) he dropped a coin into the box on being seated "to insure prompt service". Hence, the custom of tipping servers was created.Russian Tea TraditionImperial Russia was attempting to engage China and Japan in trade at the same time as the East Indian Company. The Russian interest in tea began as early as 1618 when the Chinese embassy in Moscow presented several chests of tea to Czar Alexis. By 1689 the Trade Treaty of Newchinsk established a common border between Russia and China, allowing caravans to then cross back and forth freely. Still, the journey was not easy. The trip was 11,000 miles long and took over sixteen months to complete. The average caravan consisted of 200 to 300 camels. As a result of such factors, the cost of tea was initially prohibitive and available only to the wealthy. By the time Catherine the Great died (1796), the price had dropped some, and tea was spreading throughout Russian society. Tea was ideally suited to Russian life: hearty, warm, and sustaining.The samovar, adopted from the Tibetan "hot pot", is a combination bubbling hot water heater and tea pot. Placed in the center of the Russian home, it could run all day and serve up to forty cups of tea at a time. Again showing the Asian influence in the Russian culture, guests sipped their tea from glasses in silver holders, very similar to Turkish coffee cups. The Russian have always favored strong tea highly sweetened with sugar, honey, or jam.With the completion of the Trans-Siberian Railroad in 1900, the overland caravans were abandoned. Although the Revolution intervened in the flow of the Russian society, tea remained throughout a staple. Tea (along with vodka) is the national drink of the Russians today.Tea and AmericaIt was not until 1670 that English colonists in Boston became aware of tea, and it was not publicly available for sale until twenty years later. Tea Gardens were first opened in New York City, already aware of tea as a former Dutch colony. The new Gardens were centered around the natural springs, which the city fathers now equipped with pumps to facilitate the "tea craze". The most famous of these "tea springs" was at Roosevelt and Chatham (later Park Row Street).By 1720 tea was a generally accepted staple of trade between the Colony and the Mother country. It was especially a favorite of colonial women, a factor England was to base a major political decision on later. Tea trade was centered in Boston, New York, and Philadelphia, future centers of American rebellion. As tea was heavily taxed, even at this early date, contraband tea was smuggled into the colonies by the independent minded American merchants from ports far away and adopted herbal teas from the Indians. The directors of the then John Company (to merge later with the East India Company) fumed as they saw their profits diminish and they pressured Parliament to take action. It was not long in coming.Tea and the American RevolutionEngland had recently completed the French and Indian War, fought, from England's point of view, to free the colony from French influence and stabilize trade. It was the feeling of Parliament that as a result, it was not unreasonable that the colonists shoulder the majority of the cost. After all. the war had been fought for their benefit. Charles Townshend presented the first tax measures which today are known by his name. They imposed a higher tax on newspapers (which they considered far too outspoken in America), tavern licenses (too much free speech there), legal documents, marriage licenses, and docking papers. The colonists rebelled against taxes imposed upon them without their consent and which were so repressive. New, heavier taxes were leveled by Parliament for such rebellion. Among these was, in June 1767, the tea tax that was to become the watershed of America's desire for freedom. (Townshend died three months later of a fever never to know his tax measures helped create a free nation.)The colonists rebelled and openly purchased imported tea, largely Dutch in origin. The John company, already in deep financial trouble saw its profits fall even further. By 1773 the John Company merged with the East India Company for structural stability and pleaded with the Crown for assistance. The new Lord of the Treasury, Lord North, as a response to this pressure, granted to the new Company permission to sell directly to the colonists, by-passing the colonial merchants and pocketing the difference. In plotting this strategy, England was counting on the well known passion among American women for tea to force consumption It was a major miscalculation. Throughout the colonies, women pledged publicly at meeting and in newspapers not drink English sold tea until their free rights (and those of their merchant husbands) were restored.The Boston Tea PartyBy December 16 events had deteriorated enough that the men of Boston, dressed as Indians (remember the original justification for taxation had been the expense of the French and Indian War) threw hundreds of pounds of tea into the harbor: The Boston Tea Party. Such leading citizens as Samuel Adams and John Hancock took part. England had had enough. In retaliation the port of Boston was closed and the city occupied by royal troops. The colonial leaders met and revolution declared.The Trade Continued in the OrientThough concerned over developments in America, English tea interests still centered on the product's source-the Orient. There the trading of tea had become a way of life, developing its own language known as "Pidgin English". Created solely to facilitate commerce, the language was composed of English, Portuguese, and Indian words all pronounced in Chinese. Indeed, the word "Pidgin" is a corrupted form of the Chinese word for "do business".So dominant was the tea culture within the English speaking cultures that many of these words came to hold a permanent place in our language.· "Mandarin" (from the Portuguese "mandar" meaning to order) - the court official empowered by the emperor to trade tea. · "Cash" (from the Portuguese "caixa" meaning case or money box)-the currency of tea transactions. · "Caddy" (from the Chinese word for one pound weight)-the standard tea trade container. · "Chow" (from the Indian word for food cargo)-slang for food. The Opium WarsNot only was language a problem, but so was the currency. Vast sums of money were spent on tea. To take such large amounts of money physically out of England would have financially collapsed the country and been impossible to transport safely half way around the world. With plantations in newly occupied India the John Company saw a solution. In India they could grow the inexpensive crop of opium and use it as a means of exchange. Because of its addictive nature, the demand for the drug would be lifelong, insuring an unending market.Chinese emperors tried to maintain the forced distance between the Chinese people and the "devils". But disorder in the Chinese culture and foreign military might prevented it. The Opium Wars broke out with the English ready to go to war for free trade (their right to sell opium). By 1842 England had gained enough military advantages to enable her to sell opium in China undisturbed until 1908.America Enters the Tea TradeThe first three American millionaires, T. H. Perkins of Boston, Stephen Girard of Philadelphia, and John Jacob Astor of New York, all made their fortunes in the China trade. America began direct trade with China soon after the Revolution was over in 1789. America's newer, faster clipper ships outsailed the slower, heavier English "tea wagons" that had until then dominated the trade. This forced the English navy to update their fleet, a fact America would have to address in the War of 1812.The new American ships established sailing records that still stand for speed and distance. John Jacob Astor began his tea trading in 1800. He required a minimum profit on each venture of 50% and often made 100%. Stephen Girard of Philadelphia was known as the "gentle tea merchant". His critical loans to the young (and still weak) American government enabled the nation to re-arm for the War of 1812. The orphanage founded by him still perpetuates his good name. Thomas Perkins was from one of Boston's oldest sailing families. The Chinese trust in him as a gentleman of his word enabled him to conduct enormous transactions half way around the world without a single written contract. His word and his handshake was enough so great was his honor in the eyes of the Chinese.It is to their everlasting credit that none of these men ever paid for tea with opium. America was able to break the English tea monopoly because its ships were faster and it paid in gold.The Clipper DaysBy the mid-1800's the world was involved in a global clipper race as nations competed with each other to claim the fastest ships. England and America were the leading rivals. Each year the tall ships would race from China to the Tea Exchange in London to bring in the first tea for auction. Though beginning half way around the world, the mastery of the crews was such that the great ships often raced up the Thames separated by only by minutes. But by 1871 the newer steamships began to replace these great ships.Global Tea Plantations DevelopThe Scottish botanist/adventurer Robert Fortune, who spoke fluent Chinese, was able to sneak into mainland China the first year after the Opium War. He obtained some of the closely guarded tea seeds and made notes on tea cultivation. With support from the Crown, various experiments in growing tea in India were attempted. Many of these failed due to bad soil selection and incorrect planting techniques, ruining many a younger son of a noble family. Through each failure, however, the technology was perfected. Finally, after years of trial and error, fortunes made and lost, the English tea plantations in India and other parts of Asia flourished. The great English tea marketing companies were founded and production mechanized as the world industrialized in the late 1880's.Tea Inventions in America: Iced Tea and TeabagsAmerica stabilized her government, strengthened her economy, and expanded her borders and interests. By 1904 the United States was ready for the world to see her development at the St. Louis World's Fair. Trade exhibitors from around the world brought their products to America's first World's Fair. One such merchant was Richard Blechynden, a tea plantation owner. Originally, he had planned to give away free samples of hot tea to fair visitors. But when a heat wave hit, no one was interested. To save his investment of time and travel, he dumped a load of ice into the brewed tea and served the first "iced tea". It was (along with the Egyptian fan dancer) the hit of the Fair.Four years later, Thomas Sullivan of New York developed the concept of "bagged tea". As a tea merchant, he carefully wrapped each sample delivered to restaurants for their consideration. He recognized a natural marketing opportunity when he realized the restaurants were brewing the samples "in the bags" to avoid the mess of tea leaves in the kitchens.Tea Rooms, Tea Courts, and Tea DancesBeginning in the late 1880's in both America and England, fine hotels began to offer tea service in tea rooms and tea courts. Served in the late afternoon, Victorian ladies (and their gentlemen friends) could meet for tea and conversation. Many of these tea services became the hallmark of the elegance of the hotel, such as the tea services at the Ritz (Boston) and the Plaza (New York).By 1910 hotels began to host afternoon tea dances as dance craze after dance craze swept the United States and England. Often considered wasteful by older people they provided a place for the new "working girl" to meet men in a city, far from home and family. (Indeed, the editor of Vogue once fired a large number of female secretarial workers for "wasting their time at tea dances").Afternoon Tea Today in the USATea is more popular than ever in America today. Currently, there is a re-awakening of interest in tea as many Americans seek a more positive, healthy lifestyle. Fine hotels throughout the United States are re-establishing or planning for the first time afternoon tea services. Industry research shows there are several major reasons for the new popularity of afternoon tea: 1. Attracts an upscale clientele to the property. 2. Generates additional PR for the hotel. 3. Provides an additional format to conduct business in. 4. Utilizes existing space to generate increased profits. 5. Prompts a high return rate for guests to return to use other hotel services, such as rooms, catering, etc. Popular tea types for afternoon tea serviceTrade TeasEnglish Breakfast: The prototype of this most popular of all teas was developed over a hundred years ago by the Scottish Tea Master Drysdale in EdInburgh. It was marketed simply as "Breakfast Tea". It became popular in England due to the craze Queen Victoria created for things Scottish (the summer home of Victoria and Albert was the Highland castle of Balmoral). Tea shops in London, however, changed the name and marketed it as "English Breakfast Tea". It is a blend of fine black teas, often including some Keemun tea. Many tea authorities suggest that the Keemun tea blended with milk creates a bouquet that reminds people of "toast hot from the oven" and maybe the original source for the name. It should be offered with milk or lemon. (One never serves lemon to a guest if they request milk-the lemon is never used. It would curdle the milk.) It may also be used to brew iced tea.Irish Breakfast: The Irish have always been great tea drinkers, and they drink their tea brewed very strong. In fact, there is a common tea saying among the Irish that a "proper cup of tea" should be "strong enough for a mouse to trot on." Along the same line, the Irish believed there were only three types of tea fit to drink. The first and best of quality was in China with the Chinese, of course. The second best was sent directly to Ireland. The third and lowest in quality was sent to the English. Irish Breakfast because of its robust flavor is usually drunk only in the morning (except for the Irish who drink it all day). Usually it is blended from an Assam tea base. Because of its full taste, it is served with lots of sugar (loose is considered correct here-sugar cubes are an English matter) and milk (milk, NEVER CREAM, is served with tea. Cream is too heavy for tea and belongs with coffee. The milk is always served at room temperature, never cold, as it cools the tea too quickly).Caravan: This excellent tea was created in imperial Russia from the teas brought overland by camel from Asia. Because the trade route was dangerous and supplies unsteady, Russian tea merchants blended the varying incoming tea cargoes, selling a blend rather then a single tea form. It was usually a combination of China and India black teas. Like the Irish, the Russian favored this tea all day long, but modern tea drinkers seem to prefer it at breakfast and with elegant afternoon tea fare. It is served with milk and sugar. Russian are fond of very sweet tea, often adding honey and jam to their national beverage. Lemons studded with cloves may also be offered correctly.Earl Grey: Earl Grey (1764-1845) was an actual person who, though he was prime minister of England under Wiliam IV, is better remembered for the tea named after him. Tea legends say the blend was given to him by a Chinese Mandarin seeking to influence trade relations. A smoky tea with a hint of sweetness to it, it is served plain and is the second most popular tea in the world today. It is generally a blend of black teas and bergamot oil.Black Teas and OolongDarjeeling: Refers to tea grown in this mountain area of India. The mountain altitude and gentle misting rains of the region, produce a unique full bodied but light flavor with a subtly lingering aroma reminiscent of Muscatel. Reserved for afternoon use, it is traditionally offered to guests plain. One might take a lemon with it, if the Darjeeling were of the highest grade, but never milk. (Milk would "bury" the very qualities that make it unique.)Oolong: The elegant tea is sometimes known as the "champagne of teas". Originally grown in the Fukien province of China, it was first imported to England in 1869 by John Dodd. Today, the highest grade Oolongs (Formosa Oolongs) are grown in Taiwan. A cross between green and black teas, it is fermented to achieve a delicious fruity taste that makes milk, lemon, and sugar unthinkable. With such clarity, it is perfect for afternoon use with such tea fare as cucumber sandwiches and madelaines.Green TeasGreen tea makes up only ten percent of the world's produced tea. The Japanese tea service (in which green tea is used), is an art form in and of itself. The serving of a full Japanese tea service would be beyond the ability of most properties and as a result, should not be attempted. Green tea is not generally part of the afternoon tea tradition as appropriate to hotel use.China TeasKeemun: Is the most famous of China's black teas. Because of its subtle and complex nature, it is considered the "burgundy of teas". It is a mellow tea that will stand alone as well as support sugar and/or milk. Because of its "wine-like" quality, lemon should not be offered as the combined tastes are too tart.The American Revolution in GeorgiaTea Act (1773); Tea PartyWhile Americans fought for liberty, some of the founding fathers may have had a different Liberty in mind. Smuggler John Hancock and his sloop, yes, you guessed it, Liberty, is seized by custom officials on June 10, 1768. Over the next year smugglers like Hancock reduce the amount of tea purchased in the colonies from 320,000 pounds to 520 pounds. Boycotts also affect the amount of imports. By 1772 the East India Company has 18 million pounds of unsold tea in warehouses and 1.3 million pounds sterling of debt. Its largest creditor, the Bank of England, refuses further credit. To save the company, and undercut the smugglers, Britain passes the Tea Act. On behalf of John Hancock & other known smugglers Sam Adams & the Sons of Liberty dumped 342 chests of Tea worth 9,659 pounds sterling & six shillings into Boston harbor.The Tea Act (1773) once again inflames the radicals, in spite of the fact that it will lower tea prices. If the Americans accept the lower tea prices, they also accept the duties (taxation without representation), and put many of the founding fathers out of business smuggling tea. Throughout the colonies "tea parties" are held where men turn back ships or board them and toss packaged tea into the harbor. Although no "tea party" is held in Georgia (no tea was allocated to Savannah), a party was held at the harbor in nearby Charles Town, South Carolina. In 1774 the Georgia House of Commons passes a number of resolutions about the relation of England and the colonies in general. In spite of the prior political problems, when the First Continental Congress is convened no one from Georgia attends, for no one is appointed by the House. The Midway district appoints Lyman Hall as its representative, but he does not attend, feeling that he cannot represent the entire state. Open revolt is brewing. Patriots in Charles Town, South Carolina, essentially block communication with England. They open Governor Wright's letters and replace them with forgeries. The political tension rises to new heights when word of the battles at Lexington and Concord reaches Savannah. Most of the actions taken by England are aimed at the northern colonies. Since the colonies are not yet a cohesive unit, these do not affect the state of Georgia. However, when Lyman Hall attends the Second Continental Congress in May, 1775, he brings money and supplies with him to aid the rebellion. The Origin of TeaFirst DiscoveryAccording to Chinese mythology, in 2737 BC the Chinese Emperor, Shen Nung, scholar and herbalist, was sitting beneath a tree while his servant boiled drinking water. A leaf from the tree dropped into the water and Shen Nung decided to try the brew. The tree was a wild tea tree. There are many authentic and supposed references to tea in the centuries before Christ, according to the Chinese dictionary dated circa 350 AD. The Chinese t'u was often used to describe shrubs other than tea, hence the confusion when Confucius allegedly referred to tea or t'u when writing about the "sow thistle" plant in the Book of Odes.From the earliest times tea was renowned for its properties as a healthy, refreshing drink. By the third century AD many stories were being told and some written about tea and the benefits of tea drinking, but it was not until the Tang Dynasty (618 AD - 906 AD) that tea became China's national drink and the word ch'a was used to describe tea.The spread of cultivation throughout China and Japan is largely accredited to the movement of Buddhist priests throughout the region.The first book on tea "Ch'a Ching", circa 780 AD, was written by the Chinese author Lu Yu. It comprises three volumes and covers tea from its growth through to its making and drinking, as well as covering a historical summary and famous early tea plantation. There are many illustrations of tea making utensils and some say that the book inspired the Buddhist priests to create the Japanese tea ceremony.The modern term "tea" derives from early Chinese dialect words - such as Tchai, Cha and Tay - used both to describe the beverage and the leaf. Known as Camellia sinensis, tea is an evergreen plant of the Camellia family. It has smooth, shiny pointed leaves which look similar to the privet hedge leaf found in British gardens. The Indian and Japanese legends both attribute it to Bodhidharma the devout Buddhist priest who founded Zen Buddhism. The Indian legend tells how in the fifth year of a seven year sleepless contemplation of Buddha he began to feel drowsy. He immediately plucked a few leaves from a nearby bush and chewed them which dispelled his tiredness. The bush was a wild tea tree.The Tea PlantCamellia sinensis is indigenous to China and parts of India. The wild tea plant can develop into a tree 30 metres high, so that monkeys were trained to pick the leaves and throw them down for collection below. Today, under cultivation, Camellia Sinensis is kept to a height of approximately one metre for easy plucking purposes. There are more than 1,500 teas to choose from more than 29 different listed countries around the world but the main producers are India and Sri Lanka, Kenya, Malawi, Indonesia and China. It is cultivated as a plantation crop, likes acidic soil and a warm climate with at least 50 inches of rain per annum. Other factors affecting flavour characteristics are the methods of processing and, of course, the blending together of teas from different areas and regions OR the additions of flowers, fruit, oils, herbs or spices from other plants.The first mention of tea outside China and Japan is said to be by the Arabs in 850 AD and it was they who were reputed to have brought it to Europe via the Venetians circa 1559. However, it is the Portuguese and Dutch who claim the credit of bringing tea and tea drinking to Europe. The Portuguese opened up the sea routes to China, some say as early as 1515. Jesuit priests travelling on the ships are reputed to have brought the tea drinking habit back to Portugal, while the Dutch sailors manning the ships were said to have encouraged the Dutch merchants to enter the trade, and had set up a regular shipment of tea to ports in France, Holland and the Baltic coast in 1610. England entered the trade via the East India Company, or the John Company as it was known, in the mid to late 17th Century. The History of Tea in the United KingdomThe early beginnings of tea in Britain are obscure. The East India Company, under their charter granted by Elizabeth I to the Directors, had the monopoly of importing goods from outside Europe and recorded ships reaching Britain in 1637, but no record of tea dealings with Chinese merchants appears until 1644. Sailors bringing back packets of tea from the Far East as presents, led to its introduction into London's coffee houses.First SaleThe merchant Thomas Garway was among the first to trade tea in Britain. He offered it in dry and liquid form at his coffee house in Exchange Alley in the City of London, holding his first public sale in 1657.In 1660, Garway issued a broadsheet selling tea for sale, extolling it (at £6 and £10 per pound) as "wholesome, preserving perfect health until extreme old age, good for clearing the sight," able to cure "gripping of the guts, cold, dropsies, scurveys" and claiming that "it could make the body active and lusty."First AdvertisementThe first tea advertisement - announcing the sale of "China Tcha, Tay or Tee" - appeared on 30 September 1658, in the newspaper Mercurius Politicus, booked by the owner of The Sultaness Head Coffee House. Tea rapidly gained popularity in these establishments and by 1700, was on sale by more than 500 coffee houses in London. Tavern keepers were dismayed as the coffee house vogue swept into being, as was the Government by the decline in the revenues from hard liquor sales.By the middle of the 18th century, however, tea had replaced ale and gin as the drink of the masses and had become Britain's most popular beverage.First Tea LawsIn 1675, Charles II forbade by proclamation the sale of tea, coffee, chocolate and sherbert from private houses. Designed to suppress sedition and intrigue, this act was so unpopular that it never became statute law. Six days later he repeated the proclamation. Act XII of 1676 imposed duty on the sale of such beverages and required licences of coffee house keepers: but this also proved impossible to enforce. Taxes on tea nonetheless remained punitive until 1784 when it was reduced by the Commutation Act to counter smuggling into the UK.British Tea Drinking CustomsAfternoon TeaAnna, 7th Duchess of Bedford, is reputed to have originated the idea of afternoon tea in the early 1800s. She conceived the idea of having tea around four or five in the afternoon to ward off the hunger pangs between lunch and dinner. Some time earlier, the Earl of Sandwich had the idea of putting a filling between two slices of bread. These habits soon became a good reason for social gatherings, and started a trend that is still an integral part of British life. Tea GardensAs the popularity of tea spread, it also became an essential part of people's entertainment outside the home. By 1732 an evening spent dancing or watching fireworks in Vauxhall or Ranelagh Gardens would be rounded off by serving tea. Tea gardens then opened all over the country on Saturdays and Sundays, with tea being served as the high point of the afternoon. Dancing was included as part of the day's festivities, so from the tea gardens came the idea of the tea dance, which remained fashionable in Britain until World War II when they disappeared from the social scene. Tea dances are, however, once again becoming an area of interest. High TeaFor the working and farming communities, afternoon tea became high tea. As the main meal of the day, high tea was a cross between the delicate afternoon meal enjoyed in the ladies' drawing rooms and the dinner enjoyed in houses of the gentry at seven or eight in the evening. With the meats, bread and cakes served at high tea, hot tea was taken. Tea ShopsIn 1864 the manageress of an Aerated Bread Company shop persuaded her directors to allow her to serve food and liquid refreshments in the shop. She dispensed tea to her more favoured customers and soon attracted many clients clamouring for the same service. Not only did she unwittingly start the fashion for tea shops but also one foundation of women's emancipation, since an unchaperoned lady could meet friends in a tea shop without sullying her reputation. Tea shops spread throughout Britain, becoming as much a tradition as tea itself: and even today, despite the plethora of fast food and drink outlets, this tradition remains, attracting huge numbers of UK and foreign tourists. Tea BreakTea breaks are a tradition which have been with us for approximately 200 years. Initially when workers commenced their day at around five or six in the morning employers allowed a break in the morning when food and tea were served. Some employers repeated the break in the afternoon as well. Between 1741 and 1820 industrialists, landowners and clerics tried to put a stop to the tea break maintaining that the imbibing of this beverage made working people slothful. Although it was before the inception of trade unions the workers made a stand and the tea break remains with us to this day.SmugglingBy the middle of the 18th Century, the tax on tea had reached 119% - much higher than most British taxes today - and naturally enough, was very unpopular among a tea drinking population.So smuggling into Britain began, to evade taxation. Because of the popularity of tea, many types of people became involved in the smuggling, from farm workers and shop keepers to priests and politicians. Syndicates were formed to help move and sell the smuggled tea all around the country.Smuggled tea came mainly from Holland and Scandinavia, brought over by Dutch and Scandinavian merchant ships to anchor off English and Scottish coasts.Taken ashore by fleets of small craft crewed by local fishermen, the tea was smuggled inland, often through underground passages or along hidden pathways. Above ground, carters drove the tea to secret hide-outs for storage in secret passages, under covered trapdoors or behind false walls. Often the best place for storage was the local church!Even smuggled tea was expensive, however, and by 1777 could cost anything up to 10s 6d (53p) per pound - about one-third of the average weekly wage at that time. Because of this cost, and because tea was both popular and profitable, the practice of adulteration began, even though banned by Act of Parliament in 1725. Black tea had willow, liquorice, elder and sloe leaves added to it or 'smouch' made from ash leaf and sheep's dung! Even old tea leaves, already used and then dried, were mixed with new tea. Adulteration was a highly profitable business in which people were prepared to risk the heavy fines imposed by special laws.Smuggling continued to increase, so that in 1784 Prime Minister William Pitt the Younger had the Commutation Act passed by Parliament which slashed the tax from 119% to 12.5%. This effectively ended tea smuggling in Britain. Adulteration remained profitable however, and continued until the English Food and Drug Act of 1875 imposed heavy fines or imprisonment against the practice.The Boston Tea PartyThe Boston Tea Party is famous in the history of American Independence. As an early example of American rebellion against British Rule, it represents one of the significant events leading ultimately to the American War of Independence. On 16 December 1773, between thirty and sixty men, disguised as Indians, boarded ships owned by the British East India Company. Once aboard, they smashed open the tea cargoes from wooden chests and threw them overside. Washed up on shore next morning, the cargo was of course worthless. Other ports followed suit: and every patriotic American gave up tea drinking and turned to coffee. What led to this incident? To raise money, particularly for military purposes, the British Government would levy tax on imported products such as tea. At that time, tea drinking was as popular in the American colonies as it was in Britain: and in 1773 Americans were outraged by the imposition by Lord North of tax on tea in both Britain and America. This resentment was further fuelled by lack of American representation in the British Parliament, giving rise to the famous slogan "No taxation without representation." At the same time, the Tea Act of 1773 gave the East India Company the right to ship tea from China directly to America. This was enacted to counter the American practice of buying (and sometimes smuggling) tea in from Holland and even direct from China via the Dutch, a practice which reduced trade for the East India Company. This Act put many American tea importers out of business as they incurred a tax the locals didn't want. The Americans decided that the British had interfered once too often and the Boston Tea Party took place. The Tea ClippersUntil the mid 1800's, cargo ships including those carrying tea, usually took between twelve and fifteen months to make passage from ports in the East to those in London. East India Company ships, given exclusive control of the tea trade by Act of Parliament in 1832, raced to be the first ships to land tea in Britain.The Americans were the first to design a new type of clipper. Recognising that the old ships had to carry too much weight, they designed a more streamlined vessel (based on the old Baltimore clippers) capable of carrying greater cargo (providing it was loaded correctly) at a greater speed. The new, faster clipper was born - so called because they were designed to "clip"; or get the last ounce of speed from the wind. The first of these three masted, full-rigged vessels was the 750 ton Rainbow launched in New York in 1845. Every line promised speed - from the sharp, curving stem to the slim, tapering stern, with tall raking masts carrying a huge area of sail. The journey time of the slow East Indian clippers was halved.The first British built clipper, the Stornaway, was launched for the traders Jardine Matheson in 1850 in Aberdeen. Many others followed: the "Lightning", an American built ship, covered 4.36 sea miles in 24 hours an average of eighteen miles per knot (this according to users), a record at this time and nearly as fast as a modern ocean liner.Perhaps the most famous clipper ever built was the British clipper Cutty Sark. The Cutty Sark was built in 1868 and only carried tea on just eight occasions. By the middle of the 19th Century, the races between the tea clippers had become a great annual competition. The race began in China where the clippers would leave the Canton River, race down the China Sea, across the Indian Ocean, around the Cape of Good Hope, up the Atlantic, past the Azores and into the English Channel. The clippers would then be towed up the River Thames by tugs and the race would be won by the first ship to hurl ashore its cargo at the docks. The first cargo home fetched as much as an extra sixpence (2.5p) per 1lb (450g) - and gained a cash bonus for Captain and crew.Tea's influence on British Boundaries, Commerce and IndustryVery early tea cups had no handles, being originally imported from China where such cups traditionally had no handles. So as tea drinking gained popularity, so did the demand for more British-style tea ware. This fuelled the rapid growth of the English pottery and porcelain industry, which soon became world famous. Most factories making tea ware were located in the Midlands area which became known as "The Potteries".Tea in two World WarsIn World War I, the German U-boat blockade drastically reduced tea imports into Britain: the ensuing black market led to rationing for civilians and prices were fixed by the Government. Tea rationing in World War II was less drastic, although virtually all other foods were severely rationed. Believed to act as a national morale booster, tea stocks were dispersed in over 500 different locations around the country to minimise the chances of destruction by air-raid. Tea was drunk in vast quantities by civilians and the armed forces: by D-Day, for example, the Royal Navy alone was drinking nearly 4000 tonnes a year.