Tea performing arts, tea terminology and translation, promote tea studies and innovations. *Contact ,icetea8@gmail.com, Trad. and Simp. Chinese used. Blog since 6/23/2005
Name: Steven R. Jones; Link: http://teaarts.blogspot.com/
名字:瓊斯史迪芬Steven R. Jones, 網址: http://teaarts.blogspot.com/


Chinese-English Tea Studies Terminology(2010年)


Chinese-English Tea Studies Terminology
(2010, ISBN978-957-9690-06-5)
Lu-Yu Tea Culture Institute Publications Department
Authors: Tsai, Rong-Tsang and Steven R. Jones
《中英文茶学术语》 ( 陆羽茶艺股份有限公司,2010,ISBN978-957-9690-06-5)
著作人:蔡榮章 / Steven R. Jones

增訂版包括 [ 中英文茶學術語索引 ]
預訂出版時間:2010年2月 (2010年) 繁體中文版

ISBN 978-957-9690-06-5


電話 02-2331-6636 分機211
傳真 02-2389-7786

Title: Chinese-English Tea Studies Terminology
Updated edition including Chinese-English Tea Studies Terminology Index
2010(Traditional Chinese Version)
Lu-Yu Tea Culture Institute Publications Department
Translators and Editors: Tsai, Rong-Tsang and Steven R. Jones,

ISBN 978-957-9690-06-5

Lu-Yu Tea Culture Institute
3F, #64, Heng-Yang Rd.,
Taipei, Taiwan, 10003
Tel: +886-2-2331-6636
FAX: +886-2-2331-0660
E-mail: luyutea@ms59.hinet.net

目錄Table of Contents
序 Preface

第一章 茶樹裁培、采青、初制
Chapter One Tea Cultivation, Tea Harvesting, and Tea Primary Processing

第二章 茶葉精製、加工、包裝
Chapter Two Tea Refining, Added Processing, and Packaging

第三章 茶之分類與識別
Chapter Three Classification and Recognition of Tea

第四章 泡茶原理
Chapter Four Tea Brewing Principles

第五章 十大泡茶法
Chapter Five The Ten Tea Methods

第六章 陶瓷藝術
Chapter Six Ceramics

第七章 茶具名稱與功能
Chapter Seven Kinds of Tea Ware and Functionality

第八章 茶會
Chapter Eight Tea Functions

第九章 中國茶史
Chapter Nine Chinese Tea History

第十章 日韓英茶文化
Chapter Ten Japanese, Korean, and British Tea Culture

第十一章 茶詩與健康
Chapter Eleven Tea Poetry and Health

第十二章 茶學綜論
Chapter Twelve Tea Studies Review

Chinese-English Tea Studies Terminology Index

= = =

Chinese-English Tea Studies Terminology

蔡榮章 ‧ 瓊斯史迪芬 編譯
Tsai, Rong-Tsang and Steven R. Jones, Translators and Editors
Lu-Yu Tea Culture Institute Publications Department
ISBN 978-957-9690-06-5

  序 Preface:

  A culture or a branch of study in a country or region with different languages spreading, must first translate the discipline-specific terminology properly, otherwise, the schools or the propagation at the time of delivery can not be properly expressed.

  The international spread of tea studies is confronted with this problem, with tea cultivation, and manufacturing aspects are fair; but with tea brewing, tea savoring and tea ceremony, concepts and ideology are quite deficient.

  To correctly translate the tea studies terminology, the translator must have the fundamental qualities of tea studies knowledge, and also be very accurate.

  所幸臺北陸羽茶藝中心在三十年的茶道教室裏,有了一位Mr. Steven R. Jones 能夠有將近十年的時間學習各種課程,而且說得一口尚稱流利的華語。
  Fortunately, the Taipei Lu-Yu Tea Culture Institute has three decades of tea classroom teaching, with Mr. Steven R. Jones having nearly a decade of time spent on learning a variety of courses, and can speak with some fluency in Mandarin.

  於是從2005年初起,每週四下午, Steven 與我共同從事這項工作,我將先行挑出的術語之意義充分地讓他瞭解,然後由他選出適當的譯辭,經雙方討論後定案。
  So from early 2005 and onwards, every Thursday afternoon, Steven and I would undertake this work together, I would first select terms with their full meanings to allow him to understand, then he would select the appropriate translations, then after mutual discussion we would reach a conclusion.

  After translating one or half a section of terminology, then published every month in the "Tea Culture Monthly" circulated, and await responses and comments.

  By 2007, "Tenfu Tea College" was founded in Fujian, where the "Department of Tea Culture" began to offer a one-semester two-credit "Specialized English for Tea Culture " course, which produced a need for teaching materials and teachers, so at full speed to finish the last part of the terminology translations, Steven also came in handy to teach.

  With still part not complete and needing to continue for completion, again at the college "University English" teacher Cai, Xiaoxiao (Cynthia) was found, and asked for her to help collate.

  By early 2010, this book "Chinese-English Tea Studies Terminology" finally was completed, and published by Taipei Lu-Yu Tea Culture Institute, Publishing Department.

  Steven 在家裏從事翻譯的準備工作時,他的臺灣夫人張麗香幫他找字典、補充中文及茶學方面的資訊。
  Steven at home engaged in preparations for the translation, his wife Chang, Li-Hsiang is Taiwanese and helped him find a dictionary, to supplement the Chinese and tea science information aspects.

  When he is at the tea college and having the small class for training curriculum , Ms. Chang is still present and brewing tea for the students to drink, and also as a topic for conversation in English.

The couple at the Lu-Yu Tea Culture Institute both have obtained their "Tea Master Certifications".

  This book "Chinese-English Tea Studies Terminology" is just the first complete beginning step for tea studies application part, yet there is a need to continue to complete.

  Please bring to attention any needed corrections or provide any advice.

Tsai, Rong-Tsang
Department of Tea Culture, Tenfu Tea College, January 1, 2010

Chinese-English Tea Studies Terminology
(2010, ISBN978-957-9690-06-5)
Lu-Yu Tea Culture Institute Publications Department
Authors: Tsai, Rong-Tsang and Steven R. Jones
《中英文茶学术语》 ( 陆羽茶艺股份有限公司,2010,ISBN978-957-9690-06-5)
著作人:蔡榮章 / Steven R. Jones

第 一 章


Chapter One
Tea Cultivation, Tea Harvesting,
and Primary Processing

1.0.有機茶organic tea
1.1.有機農法organic agriculture
1.2.慣行農法conventional agriculture
1.3.化學肥料chemical fertilizer

茶樹栽培最好採取“有機農法organic agriculture”,少用“慣行農法conventional agriculture”常用的“化學肥料chemical fertilizer”、“除草劑herbicide”等“農藥pesticide”。

1.6.自然生態natural ecology
1.7.地理環境geographic environment

合乎“自然生態natural ecology”的“地理環境geographic environment”才易生產高品質的茶青。

1.8.施肥情形fertilizer type
1.9.有機肥料organic fertilizer

“施肥情形fertilizer type”也會影響成茶的品質,使用“有機肥料organic fertilizer”優於化學肥料。

1.10.茶樹tea plant (tea tree, tea shrub)
1.11.茶園tea plantation (tea garden)

茶是採摘“茶樹tea plant”的芽葉為原料製造而成,集中種植茶樹的地方稱“茶園tea plantation”。

1.12.喬木型tree type
1.13.灌木型bush type

有些茶樹有明顯主幹,而且可以長得很高,稱為“喬木型tree type”;有些則無明顯主幹,長成樹叢的樣子,稱為“灌木型bush type”。

1.14.小葉種small-leaf variety
1.15.大葉種large-leaf variety
1.16.中葉種medium-leaf variety

葉子長得小小的茶樹品種稱為“小葉種small-leaf variety”,長得特別大的稱為“大葉種large-leaf variety”,長得不大不小的稱為“中葉種medium-leaf variety”。

1.17.茶樹品種tea plant variety

“茶樹品種tea plant variety”是否適宜作為某種茶類的原料,影響成茶的品質甚大。
1.18.樹齡tree age

“樹齡tree age”的大小也會影響成茶的品質,修剪型茶園的樹齡不宜太大。

1.19.播種法seeding propagation
1.20.扡插法cutting propagation
1.21.有性繁殖natural propagation (gamogenesis)
1.22.無性繁殖clonal propagation (agamogenesis)

茶樹的繁殖已從過去的“播種法seeding propagation”改為“扡插法cutting propagation” ,前者屬“有性繁殖natural propagation”,後者屬“無性繁殖clonal propagation”。



1.24.修剪型茶園shearing tea plantation
1.25.非修剪型茶園non-shearing tea plantation

我們看到每季採摘後都會從事修剪的茶園,茶樹都只長到人們腰部的高度,那是屬“修剪型茶園shearing tea plantation”。任其自然成長的茶園則稱為“非修剪型茶園non-shearing tea plantation”。

1.26.青心烏龍Green Tip Oolong Variety
1.27.硬枝紅心Firm Stem Red Tip Variety
1.28.鐵觀音Iron Goddess Variety (Tieguanyin Variety)
1.29.水仙Narcissus Variety
1.30.金萱(台茶十二號) Jinxuan “Golden Daylily” Variety,(Taiwan Tea var. 12)
1.31.翠玉(台茶十三號) Cuiyu “Green Jade” Variety, (Taiwan Tea var. 13)
1.32.紅玉(臺茶十八號) Hongyu “Black Jade” Variety, (Taiwan Tea var. 18)
1.34.鐵觀音茶 Iron Goddess Tea (Tieguanyin Tea)
1.35.水仙茶Narcissus Tea

可以製茶的茶樹有許多品種,常聽到的傳統性品種如:“青心烏龍Green Tip Oolong Variety”、“硬枝紅心Firm Stem Red Tip Variety”、“鐵觀音Iron Goddess Variety”、“水仙Narcissus Variety”等;常聽到的新培育品種如“金萱Jinxuan Variety”、“翠玉Cuiyu Variety”、“紅玉 Hongyu Variety” 等。若特別強調品種的風味,會以品種名作為成品茶的名稱,如“鐵觀音茶 Iron Goddess Tea”、“水仙茶Narcissus Tea”等。



1.40.茶青fresh leaves
1.41.採青tea harvesting

從茶樹採下“芽tip” “葉leaf”作為製茶的原料,這些原料稱為“茶青fresh leaves”,這個採摘過程稱為“採青tea harvesting”。

1.42.採摘成熟度plucking maturity
1.43.芽茶類tip-tea type
1.44.葉茶類leaf-tea type

依“製茶原料 tea raw material”即“茶青fresh leaves” 的“採摘成熟度plucking maturity”,可將茶分成“芽茶類tip-tea type” 與 “葉茶類leaf-tea type”。

1.46.一心一葉one-tip one-leaf
1.47.一心二葉one-tip two-leaf
1.48.一心三葉one-tip three-leaf
1.49.一心四葉one-tip four-leaf

芽茶類的茶青還分成“全芽心all-tip”、“一心一葉one-tip one-leaf”、“一心二葉one-tip two-leaf”、“一心三葉one-tip three-leaf”、“一心四葉one-tip four-leaf”等等。

1.50.頂芽terminal bud
1.51.駐芽inert bud
1.52.對口葉terminal facing-leaf
1.53.對口二葉terminal facing two-leaf
1.54.對口三葉terminal facing three-leaf

葉茶類是等“頂芽terminal bud”不再抽長,而成“駐芽inert bud”時,頂端成“對口葉terminal facing-leaf” 的時候才採。依嫩度分成“對口二葉terminal facing two-leaf”、“對口三葉terminal facing three-leaf”等等。
1.56.茶小綠葉蟬tea leafhopper
1.57.熟果加蜂蜜之風味ripe fruit and honey flavor

茶青若經一種叫“茶小綠葉蟬tea leafhopper” 的“昆蟲insect”叮過,製成的白毫烏龍容易有“熟果加蜂蜜之風味ripe fruit and honey flavor”。

1.58.茶青採摘品質harvest quality
1.59.採青氣候harvest climate
1.60.採青時辰harvest time
1.61.昆蟲叮咬之判斷insect bitten determination

茶青採摘的適宜“季節season”、適當“氣候climate”、適當“時辰time”,以及“昆蟲叮咬之判斷insect bitten judgement”等都屬“茶青採摘品質harvest quality”的範圍,皆影響成茶的品質。

1.62.製茶tea making
1.63.原料raw material
1.67.製造技術production technique

“製茶tea making”包括“原料raw material、氣候climate、技術technique”等所謂“天地人heaven-earth-mankind”三大因素。其中的“製造技術production technique”是影響茶葉品質的最大因素。

1.68.絨毛 fine hair
1.69.白毫white fuzz
1.70.毫顯exposed fuzz
1.71.毫隱unexposed fuzz

芽心常帶有“絨毛fine hair”,“成茶tea product”就顯現“白毫white fuzz”。但依制茶的方式,又有“毫顯exposed fuzz”與“毫隱unexposed fuzz”之分。

1.73.水孔water pore (hydathode)
1.74.氣孔air pore (stoma/stomata)
1.75.走水moisture evaporation
1.76.曬乾sun drying(sun-parched)

“萎凋withering”是讓茶青的水分依自體的生理系統,經由“水孔water pore”與“氣孔 air pore”向外蒸發,有人稱它為“走水moisture evaporation”。此與快速“曬乾sun-parched”不同,快速曬乾會讓茶青來不及發酵而成“死葉dead-leaf”。

1.80.做青lay leaf (includes setting and tossing)

“靜置setting”是讓茶青放著不動,使其消失一部分水分,即走水;“攪拌浪青 tossing”是翻動茶青,使水分消失平均,且因茶青的相互摩擦促進發酵。這兩項動作交互進行,合稱“做青lay leaf”。





1.86.揉破葉細胞crumpling leaf cells
1.88.塑造茶葉不同風味create different characters of tea

揉撚有三大功用:一是“揉破葉細胞crumpling leaf cells”,以利沖泡。二是“成形shaping”,將茶葉揉成捲曲狀,以利保存。三是透過揉撚的輕重“塑造茶葉不同風味create different characters of tea”。



1.90.炒青stir fixation
1.91.鍋炒pan fixation
1.92.滾筒式殺青機roller fixation machine

“炒青stir fixation”是殺青的一種方式,傳統是用“鍋炒pan fixation”,現代化是用“滾筒式殺青機roller fixation machine”。

1.93.蒸青steam fixation
1.94.燙青blanch fixation
1.95.烘青hot air fixation
1.96.曬青sun fixation

“蒸青steam fixation”是用蒸氣殺青,“燙青blanch fixation”是用沸水殺青,“烘青hot air fixation”是用熱風殺青,“曬青sun fixation”是用陽光殺青。

1.97.日光萎凋sun withering
1.98.室內萎凋indoor withering
1.99.熱風萎凋hot air withering

“日光萎凋sun withering”是利用室外的光與熱進行萎凋,“室內萎凋indoor withering”是在室內進行萎凋。陰雨天可以使用“熱風萎凋hot air withering”代替日光萎凋,並補足室內萎凋之不足。

1.100.晾青fresh leaf airing

將茶青表面的露水或雨珠陰乾的過程稱為“晾青fresh leaf airing”。

1.101.輕揉light rolling
1.102.重揉heavy rolling

“輕揉light rolling”與“重揉heavy rolling”是指揉撚時所施壓力的大小與時間的長短。
1.104.炒乾stir drying
1.105.烘乾hot air drying
1.106.曬乾sun drying

有些茶的“乾燥drying”是在鍋子裏“炒乾stir drying”,有的是用熱風“烘乾hot air drying”,有的是用太陽“曬乾sun drying”。

1.108.黃茶yellow tea
1.109.白毫銀針White Tip Silver Needle
1.110.白牡丹White Peony
1.111.壽眉Long Brow

如果在“乾燥”前後增加“悶黃sweltering”的制程,就會形成“黃茶yellow tea”。

1.112.不萎凋不發酵no withering-no fermentation
1.113.輕萎凋輕發酵light withering-light fermentation
1.114.中萎凋中發酵medium withering-medium fermentation
1.115.重萎凋重發酵heavy withering-heavy fermentation
1.116.重萎凋輕發酵heavy withering-light fermentation
1.117.重萎凋全發酵heavy withering-complete fermentation

依萎凋與發酵的輕重,可將茶葉分成“不萎凋不發酵no withering-no fermentation”、“輕萎凋輕發酵light withering-light fermentation”、“中萎凋中發酵medium withering-medium fermentation”、“重萎凋重發酵heavy withering-heavy fermentation”、“重萎凋輕發酵heavy withering-light fermentation”、“重萎凋全發酵heavy withering-complete fermentation”等不同的製法。
1.118.失水excessive evaporation
1.119.積水insufficient evaporation

萎凋時水分消失得太快,來不及適當的發酵就得殺青,稱為“失水excessive evaporation”。相反的,水分消失得太慢,葉子四周都已發酵變紅,裏面卻還未達到適當的消水程度,稱為“積水insufficient evaporation”。

1.120.綠中帶黃yellowish green

炒青綠茶是“綠中帶黃yellowish green”的湯色。

1.121.人工化風味processed flavor

發酵愈重,“人工化風味processed flavor”愈重。

1.122.條狀twist shape
1.123.半球狀loose ball shape
1.124.全球狀tight ball shape

輕揉撚後的茶成“條狀twist shape”,中揉撚後的茶成“半球狀loose ball shape”,重揉撚後的茶成“全球狀tight ball shape”。

1.125.布揉cloth rolling

用布將一些茶包成球狀進行揉撚的方式稱為“布揉cloth rolling”。

1.126.輕揉撚light rolling
1.127.中揉撚medium rolling
1.128.重揉撚heavy rolling

揉捻分為“輕揉撚light rolling”、“中揉撚medium rolling”、“重揉撚heavy rolling”。
1.129.線型壓揉straight-flat rolling
1.130.針狀滾揉needle rolling
1.131.螺旋揉circular rolling
1.132.圓滾揉round rolling
1.133.球狀揉ball rolling

因揉撚的使力方向不同,可分為“線型壓揉straight-flat rolling”、“針狀滾揉needle rolling”、“螺旋揉circular rolling”、“圓滾揉round rolling”、“球狀揉ball rolling”等。

1.134.邊揉邊焙multiple rolling-roasting

有一種重揉撚的方法是“邊揉邊焙multiple rolling-roasting”。

1.135.清揚light taste
1.136.低沉heavy taste

輕揉撚的茶,茶性比較“清揚light taste”;重揉撚的茶, 茶性比較“低沉heavy taste”。

1.137.熟香ripe scent

將成品茶施以溫度、時間不等的烘焙,飲用時會有股“熟香ripe scent”。

1.138.高香high fragrance
1.139.低頻的糖香deep notes of candy scent
1.140.高頻的熟果香sharp notes of ripe fruit scent

日光萎凋可以造就出部分發酵茶“高香high fragrance”的特質。不經日光萎凋的“重萎凋全發酵”可以造就出紅茶“低頻的糖香deep notes of candy scent”。相反的,經日光萎凋的“重萎凋重發酵”可以造就出如“白毫烏龍”高頻的熟果香sharp notes of ripe fruit scent”。

1.141.菜香型vegetal scent type

不發酵茶是屬“菜香型vegetal scent type”的茶葉。

1.142.花香型floral scent type

輕發酵茶是屬“花香型floral scent type”的茶葉。

1.143.堅果香型nutty scent type

中發酵茶通常會焙點火而呈“堅果香型nutty scent type”。

1.144.熟果香型ripe fruit scent type

重發酵茶是屬“熟果香型ripe fruit scent type”的茶葉。

1.145.糖香型candy scent type

全發酵茶是屬“糖香型candy scent type”的茶葉。

1.146.接近自然植物的風味close to plant flavor
1.147.遠離自然植物的風味far away from plant flavor

發酵愈少的茶愈“接近自然植物的風味close to plant flavor”;發酵愈多,愈“遠離自然植物的風味far away from plant flavor”。

1.148.低溫乾燥法ambient drying
1.149.碾茶flake tea

有些茶講究顏色的翠綠,乾燥時會選用“低溫乾燥法ambient drying”,如成茶後將繼續研磨成末茶的“碾茶flake tea”即使用此法。

1.150.平地茶lowland tea
1.151.高山茶Alpine Tea (High Mountain Oolong)

“地理環境geographic environment”直接影響茶青的品質,海拔高一點是植茶的好地方,這樣製成的茶稱為“高山茶Alpine Tea”。

1.152.绿茶Green Tea
1.153.乌龙茶Oolong Tea
1.154.四大茶類The Four Tea Types
1.155.红茶Black Tea
1.156.普洱茶Puerh Tea

市場上將茶簡分為“四大茶類The Four Tea Types”,即將“全發酵茶completely fermented tea”統稱為“紅茶Black Tea”,將“後發酵茶post-fermented tea”統稱為“普洱茶Puerh Tea”,將“部分發酵茶partially fermented tea”統稱為“烏龍茶 Oolong Tea”,將“不發酵茶non-fermented tea”統稱為「綠茶」 Green Tea。

1.157.扁平狀press-flat shape
1.158.針狀needle shape

揉撚時直線來回壓揉, 若使茶青滑動,即造就成“扁平狀press-flat shape”的茶,若使茶青滾動,即造就成“針狀needle shape”的茶。

1.159.片狀flat shape
1.160.芽狀tip shape

揉撚時若只是輕輕撥動一下,對於葉片型的茶而言即形成“片狀flat shape”的茶,對於芽心形的茶而言即形成“芽狀tip shape”的茶。

1.163.珠狀pearl shape

揉撚時若將茶葉“捲curl”成一團,而不是“揉roll”成一團,那造就成的茶就叫“珠狀pearl shape”。

1.164.體積大小volume size
1.167.細條thin strip
1.168.鬆卷loose curled
1.169.條狀twist shape
1.171.粗鬆course and loose

同樣重量的茶葉,其“體積大小volume size”可分成“堅實 tight”、“密實 compact”、“細條 thin strip”、“鬆卷 loose curled”、“條狀 twist”、“蓬鬆 puffy”、“粗鬆 course and loose”等七個等級。

1.172.緊結度 tightness degree
1.173.粒狀granular tightness
1.174.球狀ball tightness
1.175.緊塊狀block piece tightness
1.176.細角狀fanning tightness
1.177.碎片狀broken leaf tightness
1.178.圓條狀twist needle tightness
1.179.鬆塊狀loose block tightness
1.180.捲曲狀curl tightness
1.181.劍片狀sword tightness
1.182.自然條狀natural twist tightness
1.183.自然彎曲natural curve tightness
1.184.自然片狀natural flat tightness

茶葉的外形,從“緊結程度tightness degree”的高低可分成“粒狀 granular tightness”、“球狀 ball tightness”、“緊塊狀 block piece tightness”、“細角狀 flake tightness”、“碎片狀 chip piece tightness”、“圓條狀 twist needle tightness”、“鬆塊狀 loose block tightness”、“捲曲狀 curl tightness”、“劍片狀 sword tightness”、“自然條狀 natural twist tightness”、“自然彎曲natural curve tightness”、“自然片狀 natural flat tightness”。

1.185.條索緊結程度leaf twist tightness
1.186.茶青老嫩fresh leaf maturity
“條索緊結程度 leaf twist tightness”與“茶青老嫩fresh leaf maturity”最為有關。

1.187.成茶外形大小finished leaf size
1.188.採摘成熟度 plucking maturity
1.189.破碎程度crumbling degree

茶葉“成茶外形大小finished leaf size”受先天品種、季節、營養、樹齡與“採摘成熟度 plucking maturity”之影響。也因製成後“破碎程度 crumbling degree”而有別。

1.190.緊壓茶compressed tea
1.191散形茶loose tea

緊壓成塊狀的茶稱為“緊壓茶compressed tea”,未經緊壓的茶稱為“散形茶loose tea”。

1.192.依採制季節而做的分類classify by harvest season
1.193.春茶spring tea
1.194.夏茶summer tea
1.195.秋茶autumn tea
1.196.冬茶winter tea

“依採製季節而做的分類classify by harvest season”,可將茶葉分成“春茶spring tea”、“夏茶summer tea”、“秋茶autumn tea”與“冬茶winter tea”。

1.198.清明節Ching Ming Festival( Apr. 4-6)
1.199.明前茶Pre-Ching Ming Tea
1.200.穀雨Grain Rain (Apr.19-21)
1.201.穀雨茶Grain Rain Tea

若依“節氣period”而分,春茶尚可分成三個階段,第一階段是“清明節Ching Ming Day”以前採製的芽茶類,俗稱“明前茶Pre-Ching Ming Tea”。第二階段是清明節以後採製的較為早採的葉茶類。第三階段是“穀雨Grain Rain”以後採製成熟度較高的葉茶類,俗稱“穀雨茶Grain Rain Tea”。

1.202.發酵程度degree of fermentation
1.203.茶乾色澤dry tea color
1.204.綠茶green tea
1.205.黃茶yellow tea
1.206.黑茶dark tea
1.207.白茶white tea
1.208.青茶celadon tea
1.209.紅茶black tea

將茶分成綠茶、黃茶、黑茶、白茶、青茶、紅茶等六類是依“發酵程度degree of fermentation”與“茶乾色澤dry tea color”而做的分類。

1.210.不发酵茶non-fermented tea
1.211.部分发酵茶partially fermented tea
1.212.全发酵茶completely fermented tea
1.213.後发酵茶post fermented tea

第 二 章


Chapter Two
Tea Refining, Added Processing,
and Packaging

2.0 初製primary processing
2.2.穩定品質stabilize quality

茶葉的“精製 refining”除了美化外形,還可“穩定品質stabilize quality”。包括“篩分screening”、“剪切cutting”、“拔梗de-stemming”、“整形shaping”、“風選winnowing”、“拼配blending”、“覆火re-drying”。

2.10.正茶primary tea product
2.11.副茶tea byproduct
2.12.茶枝tea stem
2.13.茶角tea fannings
2.14.茶末tea dust

茶廠還有“正茶primary tea product”、“副茶tea byproduct”的分類法。副茶還分成“茶枝tea stem”、“茶角tea fannings”與“茶末tea dust”。

2.15.枝葉連理stem and leaf joint
2.16.枝葉分離stem and leaf disjoint

有些成品茶講求枝、葉不分離,泡開後一朵朵如原來長在樹上一般,稱為“枝葉連理stem and leaf joint”;有些成品茶則要枝、葉分離,以利乾燥,稱為“枝葉分離stem and leaf disjoint”。芽茶類的茶,“枝葉連理 stem and leaf joint”是常態。

2.17.葉基leaf base

葉茶類的茶之所以要將枝葉分離,是避免“葉基 leaf base”與“梗部 stem”連接的地方乾燥不易。

2.19.枝葉分離點stem and leaf separation point

對枝葉分離的茶,我們還要進一步觀察“枝葉分離點 stem and leaf separation point”,判斷是否破壞了葉子的完整度。

2.20.加工added processing

“茶的加工added processing”包括“焙火roasting、熏花scenting、調味spicing、陳放aging ”。

2.26.溫暖warm nature
2.27.熟香ripe scent
2.28.寒性cool nature
2.29.熟火烏龍Roast Oolong

“焙火 roasting”是以烘焙的方式將茶變得“溫暖 warm nature”且具“熟香 ripe scent”。茶屬“寒性cool nature”的食物,製作時焙些火可以使它變得“溫暖warm nature”一些,如“熟火烏龍 Roast Oolong”。

2.30.炭焙charcoal roasting
2.31.機焙machine roasting

焙火因使用的方式分成“炭焙 charcoal roasting”與“機焙 machine roasting”。

2.33.陳香aged scent
2.34.老茶old tea
2.35.陳茶stored tea

“存放storing”良好的茶,茶湯呈現一種“陳香 aged scent”的風味。存放五年八年後就是“老茶 old tea”。至於“陳茶stored tea”,只表明是舊茶,品質是提升還是下降就不得而知了。

2.36.茶乾的光澤度 dry tea luster degree

陳放會影響“茶乾的光澤度 dry tea luster degree”,陳放愈久光澤度愈差。

2.38.發熱generate heating
2.39.微生物的生長microbe growth

茶的“渥堆piling”會“發熱generate heating”,且帶動“微生物的生長microbe growth”,造成許多茶成分的“降解degradation”。

2.41.成品茶finished tea

完成全部製造過程,品質達到一定穩定度的茶稱為“成品茶finished tea”。

2.43.七分茶三分花seven parts tea and three parts fragrance

“熏花scenting”是將花香加到茶裏,增進茶的風味。但還是要以茶為主,所謂“七分茶三分花seven parts tea and three parts flower”。



2.50.回甘sweet aftertaste

茶湯喝下後,在口腔與喉頭上遺留的香與味稱為“喉韻aftertaste”,也稱為“回甘sweet aftertaste”。

2.51.緊壓茶compressed tea
2.52.圓餅狀round compress shape
2.53.方磚形square compress shape
2.54.碗狀bowl compress shape
2.55.球狀ball compress shape
2.56.柱狀roll compress shape

“緊壓茶compressed tea”的形狀有“圓餅狀round compress shape”、“方磚形square compress shape”、“碗狀bowl compress shape”、“球狀ball compress shape”、“柱狀roll compress shape”等。

2.57.餅狀disk shape
2.58.碗狀bowl shape
2.59.磚形brick shape
2.60.球形ball shape

緊壓茶包括“餅狀 disk shape”、“碗狀 bowl shape”、“磚形 brick shape”、“球形 ball shape”等等。

2.61.清炒stir fry

沒焙火的茶喝來有如“清炒stir fry”的菜,焙火的茶喝來有如“紅燒stew”的菜。

2.63.厚重醇和rich mellow

渥堆讓茶葉變得“厚重醇和rich mellow”。

2.64.小袋茶tea bag
2.65.碎形小袋茶shredded-tea bag
2.66.立體袋茶triangular tea bag
2.67.原片小袋茶whole-leaf tea bag

包裝成“一人泡一次”的“過濾性”茶包,稱為“小袋茶tea bag”。若包裝的是碎形茶,稱為“碎形小袋茶shredded-tea bag”。將小袋茶的外形設計成立體狀,有利茶葉舒展,稱“立體袋茶triangular tea bag”。小袋茶內裝的是未經剪切的原形茶,稱為“原片袋茶whole-leaf tea bag”。

2.68.茶tea leaf
2.69.茶湯tea liquid
2.70.飲料茶tea beverage
2.71.速溶茶(茶精)instant tea
2.72.茶点心tea snacks
2.73.茶菜tea cuisine

將“茶tea leaf”浸泡成“茶湯tea liquid”。用以直接飲用的茶稱為“飲料茶tea beverage”。

2.75.無雜味no odors
2.77.儲存方法stored method

茶葉應“儲存storage”在“無雜味no orders”、“不透光opaque”、且乾燥度良好的地方或容器內。茶葉在消費者手中的“儲存方法stored method”決定了品質的穩定性與是否往優質的方向邁進。

2.79.真空包裝vacuum packaging
2.80.充氮包裝nitrogen packaging

為減少成品茶的品質變化,“包裝Packaging”時可以採取“真空包裝vacuum packaging”或“充氮包裝nitrogen packaging”的方式。

2.81.冷凍保存freezer storage

維持成品茶的原樣,最有效的方法是“冷凍保存freezer storage”。

2.82.商品名稱product name
2.83.茶名解說tea name description
2.84.茶性解說tea character description

包裝上除“商品名稱product name”外,應標示“茶名解說tea name description”與“茶性解說tea character description”。

2.85.老茶old tea(aged tea)
2.87.陳香aged scent
2.88.短期陳放short-term aging
2.89.中期陳放medium-term aging
2.90.長期陳放long-term aging

有人喜歡“老茶aged tea”,茶性變得“醇和mild”,而且帶有一股“陳香aged scent”。存放一年者屬“短期陳放short-term aging”,三、五年者屬“中期陳放medium-term aging”,十年以上者稱“長期陳放long-term aging”。

2.91.鬥茶tea competition
2.92.茶商品比賽tea product competition
2.93.制茶比賽tea producing competition

“鬥茶tea competition”在中國宋代是一種泡茶比賽,現代的“茶比賽tea competition”還包括“茶商品比賽tea product competition”與“制茶比賽tea producing competition”。

第 三 章


Chapter Three
Tea Classification and Recognition

3.1.市場之茶分類Marketing Tea Classification

“市場之茶分類Marketing Tea Classification”乃依“發酵fermentation”、“揉撚rolling”、“焙火roasting”、“原料成熟度tea leaf maturity”等之不同而分。

分 類 名 稱
Classification Name\&商 品 名 稱 舉 例
Product Name Examples\&
Green Tea
(including Yellow Tea)\&3.2.銀針綠茶
Silver Needle
Green Tea\&3.3.綠茶銀針Green Needle、
3.4.君山銀針Jun Mountain Silver Needle\&
Lightly Rubbed
Green Tea\&3.6.六安瓜片Liuan Leaf、3.7.安吉白茶Anji White Leaf、3.8.太平猴魁Taiping Monkey、3.9.霍山黃芽Huoshan Yellow Bud\&
Curled Green Tea\&3.11.碧螺春Green Spiral、
3.12.徑山茶 Jing Mountain Tea、
3.13.蟠毫 Coil Curly Hair、

Green Tea
including Yellow Tea)\&3.14.劍片綠茶
Sword Shaped
Green Tea\&3.15.龍井Dragon Well、
3.16.煎茶Green Blade (Sencha)、竹茗香 Zhuming Tea\&
Twisted Green Tea\&3.18.雨花茶 Rain Flower Tea、3.19.玉露Jade Dew、3.20.香片Jasmine Tea、3.21.眉茶Brow Tea\&
Pearled Green Tea\&3.23.珠茶Gunpowder、
3.24.蝦目 Shrimp Eye、
3.25.繡球Silk Ball\&
Steamed Green Tea\&玉露Jade Dew、
煎茶Green Blade Sencha\&
Puerh Tea\&3.27.存放普洱Stored Puerh\&3.28.青沱Celadon Bowl Puerh、3.29.青餅 Celadon Cake Puerh\&
3.30.渥堆普洱Pile Puerh Tea
(黑茶類) Dark Tea \&3.31.宮廷普洱 Palace Puerh、3.32.七子餅Seven Stack Puerh、3.33.康磚 Kang Brick Tea、3.34.六堡茶 Liubao Tea\&
Oolong Tea
(including White Tea
and Celadon
White Oolong\&3.36.白毫銀針White Tip Needle、3.37.白牡丹 White Peony、3.38.壽眉 Long Brow Tea\&
Twisted Oolong\&3.40.清茶(包種茶)Light Oolong (Pouchong)、3.41.大紅袍Red Robe Tea、3.42鳳凰單叢Fenghuang Unique Bush\&
Pelleted Oolong\&3.44.凍頂Dong Ding Oolong、3.45.鐵觀音Iron Goddess、
3.46.佛手Finger Citron

Roasted Oolong
\&3.48.熟火鐵觀音Roast Iron Goddess、3.49.熟火岩茶Roast Rock Tea\&
White Tipped
Oolong\&白毫烏龍White Tip Oolong (3.51.東方美人Oriental Beauty)\&
Black Tea\&3.52.條形紅茶
Unshredded Black
Tea\&3.53.祁紅Keemun Black、
3.54.滇紅Dian Black、
3.55.正山小種Lapsang Souchong \&
Shredded Black
Tea\&3.57.紅小袋茶Black Tea Flake

3.58.西湖龍井 Xihu Dragon Well
3.59.黃山毛峰Yellow Mountain Fuzz Tip

有些茶以原產地為名,如“西湖龍井Xihu Dragon Well”、“黃山毛峰Yellow Mountain Fuzz Tip”都是。

0.00.渥堆普洱Pile Puerh
0.00.黑茶Dark Tea
3.60.熟普Dark Puerh
3.61.熟餅 Dark Cake
0.00.存放普洱Stored Puerh
3.62.生普 Green Puerh
3.63.青普 Celadon Puerh
3.64.生餅 Green Cake

“渥堆普洱Pile Puerh ”屬“黑茶Dark Tea”類,市面上有人稱“熟普Dark Puerh ”或“熟餅Dark Cake”;“存放普洱Stored Puerh”不屬黑茶,市面上有人稱“生普Green Puerh”或“青普Celadon Puerh ”或“生餅 Green Cake”。

0.00.大紅袍Red Robe
3.65.白鷄冠 White Comb
3.66.水金龜 Gold Turtle
3.67.鐵羅漢 Iron Monk
3.68.武夷岩茶Wuyi Rock

“大紅袍Red Robe Tea”, “白鷄冠 White Comb”, “水金龜 Gold Turtle”, “鐵羅漢 Iron Monk”,都是“武夷岩茶Wuyi Rock”的一種。武夷Wuyi是中國福建省的一處山區地名。

0.00.條型紅茶Unshredded Black Tea
0.00.碎形紅茶Shredded Black Tea
3.69.工夫紅茶Gongfu Black Tea

成品茶成條狀的紅茶稱為“條型紅茶Unshredded Black Tea”,切成碎角狀的稱為“碎形紅茶 Shredded Black Tea”。條型紅茶中製作精良者可以特別稱為“工夫紅茶Gongfu Black Tea”。

3.70.炒青茶stir dried tea
3.71.曬青茶sun dried tea
3.72.烘青茶roast dried tea
0.00.蒸青綠茶steam fixed green tea
3.73.燙青綠茶blanch fixed green tea
3.74.炒青綠茶stir fixed green tea
3.75.曬青綠茶sun fixed green tea
3.76.碾茶flake tea
綠茶因殺青方式不同可有“蒸青綠茶steam fixed green tea”、“燙青綠茶blanch fixed green tea”、“炒青綠茶stir fixed green tea”、“曬青綠茶sun fixed green tea”等種類。研磨成“抹茶Fine Powder Tea”的“碾茶flake tea”屬“蒸青綠茶steam fixed green tea”。

3.77.茶水交融well mixed

茶道上使用的“抹茶Fine Powder Tea”是在碗內和水攪擊至“茶水交融well mixed”,液面起“泡沫froth”後飲用。

0.00.白毫烏龍White Tip Oolong
0.00.東方美人Oriental Beauty
3.79.着延茶Bitten Tea
3.80.膨風茶Boast Tea
3.81.三色茶Motley Tea
3.82.五色茶Motley Tea

“白毫烏龍White Tip Oolong”又稱為“東方美人Oriental Beauty”、“着延茶Bitten Tea”、“膨風茶Boast Tea”、“三色茶”或“五色茶Motley Tea”。

0.00.綠茶green tea


0.00.清茶(包種茶) Light Oolong (Pouchong)


0.00.凍頂Dong Ding Oolong


0.00.鐵觀音茶Iron Goddess Tea
3.86.崇山峻嶺lofty mountains

“鐵觀音茶Iron Goddess Tea”像“崇山峻嶺lofty mountains”,是陽剛茶的代表。

0.00.白毫烏龍White Tip Oolong
3.87.玫瑰花海sea of roses

“白毫烏龍White Tip Oolong”像一片“玫瑰花海sea of roses”,是陰柔茶的代表。

0.00.普洱茶Puerh Tea
3.88.深山古刹deep mountain ancient temple

“普洱茶Puerh Tea”像出家的老和尚,喝普洱茶如走進了“深山古剎deep mountain ancient temple”。

3.89.大葉紅茶large-leaf black tea
3.90.小葉紅茶small-leaf black tea
3.91.煙熏紅茶Smoked Black Tea(Lapsang Souchong)
3.92.阿薩姆紅茶Assam Black Tea

用大葉種製成的紅茶稱為“大葉紅茶large-leaf black tea”,用小葉種製成的紅茶稱為“小葉紅茶small-leaf black tea”,用鬆枝等熏過的紅茶稱為“煙熏紅茶smoked black tea”,用阿薩姆品種製成的紅茶就稱為“阿薩姆紅茶Assam Black Tea”。

3.93. 末茶 Tea Powder
3.94.抹茶Fine Powder Tea(Matcha)

粉狀的茶稱為“末茶 Tea Powder”,其中特別講究品質,且磨得特別細緻,直接攪擊以飲用者稱為“抹茶Fine Powder Tea”。

3.95.泡沫茶foam tea (bubble tea)
3.96.泡沫紅茶Foam Black Tea

攪擊泡妥之紅茶茶湯,使起泡沫,增強口感之活性,稱為“泡沫紅茶Foam Black Tea”。

0.00.紅茶Black Tea
3.97.秋天變紅了的楓樹林autumn maple forest

紅茶有如一片“秋天變紅了的楓樹林autumn maple forest”,像慈祥的媽媽。

3.98.熏花茶scented tea
3.99.熏花綠茶scented green tea
3.100.熏花普洱茶scented puerh tea
3.101.熏花烏龍茶scented oolong tea
3.102.熏花紅茶scented black tea

將茶加入花香就成“熏花茶scented tea”,以綠茶加熏花香就是“熏花綠茶scented green tea”、以普洱茶加熏花香就是“熏花普洱scented puerh tea”、以烏龍茶加熏花香就是“熏花烏龍茶scented oolong tea”、以紅茶加熏花香就是“熏花紅茶scented black tea”。

3.103.茉莉綠茶Jasmine Scented Green Tea
3.104.桂花烏龍茶Osmanthus Oolong
3.105.茉莉花茶Jasmine Tea
3.106.玫瑰繡球Rose Bulb Tea

熏花茶也可因所加入的花香名而稱呼為“茉莉綠茶Jasmine Scented Green Tea”、“桂花烏龍茶Osmanthus Oolong”。如果只稱“茉莉花茶Jasmine Tea”或“玫瑰繡球Rose Bulb Tea”,那就是以茉莉花或玫瑰花所熏製的綠茶。

3.107.調味茶spiced tea
3.108.調味綠茶spiced green tea
3.109.調味普洱spiced Puerh tea
3.110.調味烏龍spiced oolong tea
3.111.調味紅茶spiced black tea
3.112.人參烏龍茶Ginseng Oolong
3.113.肉桂茶Cassia Tea

調味茶spiced tea是以其他食物與茶摻和在一起的茶,各類茶都可以如此調製而稱為“調味綠茶spiced green tea”、“調味普洱spiced puerh tea”、“調味烏龍spiced oolong tea”、“調味紅茶spiced black tea”。如果以人參粉調製烏龍茶,則稱為“人參烏龍茶Ginseng Oolong”,以肉桂粉調製的茶,則稱為“肉桂茶Cassia Tea”。

第 四 章


Chapter Four
Tea Brewing Principles

4.1.與茶為友be friends with tea

泡茶的基本態度是“與茶為友be friends with tea”。

4.2.泡茶五要素5-Keys of Brewing
4.3.水溫water temperature
4.4.水質water quality
4.5.茶水比例tea to water ratio (g:cc)
4.6.時間infusion time
4.7.沖泡器brewing vessel

“水溫water temperature”、 “水質water quality”、“茶水比例tea to water ratio”、“時間infusion time”、“沖泡器brewing vessel”,是為“泡茶五要素5-Keys of Brewing”。

4.8.散熱速度heat dissipation rate
4.9.密度高high density
4.10.胎身薄thin body
4.11.保溫效果heat preservation effect
4.12.密度低low density
4.13.胎身厚 thick body

壺之影響泡茶效果,最主要的是壺的“散熱速度heat dissipation rate”,“密度高high density”者、“胎身薄thin body”者,散熱速度快,即所謂之“保溫效果heat preservation effect”差;“密度低low density”者,“胎身厚thick body”者,散熱速度慢,即所謂之保溫效果好。

4.14.水中礦物質含量dissolved mineral content
4.15.硬水hard water
4.16.軟水soft water

若“水中的礦物質含量dissolved mineral content”太高,一般稱為“硬水hard water”,相反的,含量不高時,就稱為“軟水soft water”。軟水才是泡茶良好的用水。

4.17.逆滲透淨水法reverse osmosis water filtration

降低水中礦物質的含量,可以使用“逆滲透淨水法reverse osmosis water filtration”。

4.18.逆滲透濾水器reverse osmosis water filter (RO water filter)
4.19.活性碳 active carbon
4.20.逆滲透濾水reverse osmosis (RO)

“逆滲透濾水器RO water filter”可以降低水的硬度;“活性碳 active carbon”可以濾掉雜味與雜色。

0.00.活性碳active carbon

若水中含有“消毒藥劑disinfectant”,如“氯chlorine”,可以使用“活性碳active carbon”將之濾掉。

4.23.水中空氣含量 water air solubility
4.25.呆滯 flat

“水中空氣含量water air solubility”高者,飲來口感較具“活性vibrant”而不“呆滞flat”。

4.27.含菌量bacteria quantity

水中的“雜質impurity”與“含菌量bacteria quantity”是越少越好。

4.28.餘氯residual chlorine
4.30.危害健康的重金屬harmful heavy metals
4.31.含菌量bacteria quantity

泡茶用水的礦物質總含量要低,而且不含“餘氯 residual chlorine”等其它“雜味 off-flavor”。含“危害健康的重金屬 harmful heavy metals”或“含菌量 bacteria quantity”太高也是不好的。

4.32.礦泉水mineral water
4.33.飲用水drinking water

市面上的“礦泉水mineral water”與“飲用水drinking water”若是礦物質含量低者,是可以用來泡茶的,若是礦物質含量高,只能作為飲用。

4.34.泉水spring water

“泉水spring water”是否適於泡茶,也是要依其礦物質、雜質、含菌量的多少而定。

4.35.導電度electric conductivity

水中礦物質含量的多寡可以用“導電度electric conductivity”來表示,100ppm以內的軟水是很適合泡茶的。

4.36.暫時硬水impermanent hard water
4.37.以煮沸的方法降低硬度reduce hardness by boiling
4.38.永久硬水permanent hard water

“暫時硬水 impermanent hard water”可“以煮沸的方法降低硬度 reduce hardness by boiling”,“永久硬水 permanent hard water”就不行了。

4.39.泉源深deep wellspring

“泉源深 deep wellspring”的泉水較不易受地面水的影響。

4.40.水溫water temperature
4.41.低溫low temperature (70°C~80°C)
4.42.中溫medium temperature (80°C~90°C)
4.43.高溫high temperature (90°C~100°C)

泡茶的“水溫water temperature”很重要,有些茶要用“低溫low temperature (70°C~80°C)”的水,有些茶要用“中溫medium temperature (80°C~90°C)”的水,有些茶要用“高溫high temperature (90°C~100°C)”的水。

4.44.茶葉主要成分在不同水溫之下的溶解狀況the dissolving parameters of tea leaf main ingredients in various water temperatures

泡茶時要注意“茶葉主要成分在不同水溫之下的溶解狀況 the dissolving parameters of tea leaf main ingredients in various water temperatures”。

4.45.影響水溫的因素factors of changing water temperature

有沒有溫壺是“影響水溫的因素factors of changing water temperature”之一。

4.46.水溫的判斷determine water temperature

“水溫的判斷 determine water temperature”是學習泡茶的重要課題。

4.47.蒸氣外冒的狀況steam emitting condition

從“蒸氣外冒的狀況 steam emitting condition”可以判斷水的溫度。
4.48.茶湯倒出後茶葉的散熱leaves cool down after pouring the liquid

前一泡的水溫太高,使用“茶湯倒出後茶葉的散熱 leaves cool down after pouring the liquid”是改善該泡水溫的方法之一。

4.49.水溫與茶湯品質water temperature and tea liquid quality

“水溫與茶湯品質 water temperature and tea liquid quality”是指不同的水溫可以將同一種茶泡出不同質感的茶湯。

4.50.置茶量tea amount
4.51.蓬鬆的茶puffy form tea
4.52.緊結的茶tight form tea
4.53.密實的茶compact form tea
4.54.沖泡的次數number of brews

小壺茶的“置茶量tea amount”要看茶是屬“蓬鬆的茶puffy form tea”,還是“緊結的茶tight form tea”,還是“密實的茶compact form tea”,再依想“沖泡的次數number of brews”來決定置茶量。

4.55.緊壓程度degree of compression
4.56.剝碎程度degree of flaked size

緊壓茶的沖泡要注意茶的“壓緊程度degree of compression”與“剝碎程度degree of flaking size”。

4.57.多次性泡茶法multiple brew method
4.58.可泡茶次數possible number of brews
4.59.茶水比例 tea to water ratio

“多次性泡茶法 multiple brew method”的“可泡茶次數possible number of brews”要依置茶量與“茶水比例 tea to water ratio”而定。

4.60.單次性泡茶法single brew method
4.61.水量(cc數)之1.5%的茶量(g數) 1.5% tea to water ratio (g:cc )

含葉茶法是“單次性泡茶法single brew method”,使用“水量(cc數)之1.5%的茶量(g數) 1.5% tea to water ratio (g:cc)”

4.63.半梗partially stemless
4.64.帶梗with stems

泡茶時要注意茶的外形,包括“淨梗 stemless”、“半梗 partially stemless”與“帶梗 with stems”等情形。

4.66.含塊flakes with lumps

緊壓茶在沖泡之前必先剝散,稱為“解塊 flaking”,這與揉撚時之解塊不同意義。沖泡時還得留意“含塊 flakes with lumps”的大小。

4.68.茶水可溶物water soluble substances of tea
茶葉“着延spread”的輕重會影響“茶水可溶物 water soluble substances of tea”溶解的速度。

4.69.揉撚的輕重degree of rolling
4.70.葉胞被揉破的程度leaf crumple degree
4.71.葉底 brewed leaves

所謂“揉撚的輕重 degree of rolling”是指“葉胞被揉破的程度 leaf crumple degree”。這些從泡開後的“葉底 brewed leaves”可以清楚地看出。

4.72.茶青的嫩度fresh leaf tenderness degree
4.73.萎凋的輕重withering degree
4.74.外形緊結程度tea shape tightness
4.75.條索緊結程度tea leaf tightness
4.76.焙火的輕重roasting degree
4.77.昆蟲叮咬情形的輕重insect bitten condition
4.78.枝葉連理的情形stem and stemless degree
4.79.茶形的大小tea leaf size
4.80.陳放的時間storing time
4.81.渥堆與否piling or non-piling
4.82.水可溶物含量的多寡water soluble substance quantity
4.83.浸泡時間infusion time

以上這些狀況都是影響泡茶時“浸泡時間infusion time”的因素。

4.84.鬆緊程度compress tightness degree

緊壓茶的“鬆緊程度 compress tightness degree”有很大的差異。

4.85.經濟型置茶量economical quantity style
4.86.優裕型置茶量abundant quantity style

只泡一次的茶葉用量有“經濟型置茶量 economical quantity style”與“優裕型置茶量 abundant quantity style”之分。前者在飲用時可以讓茶葉一直浸泡著,後者在適當濃度後必須將茶葉與茶湯分離。

4.87.可溶物釋出速度solubility rate
4.88.可溶物釋出率solubility proportion

泡茶水溫會影響“可溶物釋出速度solubility rate”與“可溶物釋出率solubility proportion”。

4.89.基本浸泡時間minimum brewing time

小壺茶的第一泡有所謂之“基本浸泡時間minimum brewing time”,少於這個時間,雖然茶湯濃度足夠,但水中的成分不夠完整。

4.90.間隔時間brew interval time(between brews)

前後兩泡“間隔時間brew interval time”的長短會影響所需浸泡時間。

4.91.向前讀秒的計時器forward counting timer
4.92.倒數的計時器countdown timer(backward timer)
控制茶葉浸泡時間可利用“向前讀秒的計時器forward counting timer”,“倒數的計時器countdown timer”不實用。

4.93.倒乾程度drain drying degree

泡茶時茶湯“倒乾程度 drain drying degree”會影響當時與下一泡茶湯的濃度。

4.94.前一泡的濃度對下一泡茶的影響brewed tea strength influence on the following brewing

連續沖泡數道茶湯,應理解“前一泡的濃淡對下一泡茶的影響 brewed tea strength influence on the following brewing”。

4.95.茶鑒定tea appraisal (tea tasting)
4.96.茶欣賞tea appreciation

“茶鑒定tea appraisal”與“茶欣賞tea appreciation”是一體的兩面,相輔相成。

4.97.评茶泡茶法Tea Appraisal Brewing Method
4.98.评茶观能鉴定Tea senory appraisal
4.99.鑒定茶組tea appraisal set
4.100.沖泡盅tea apprasial brewing cup
4.101.評茶碗tea apprasial bowl
4.102.審茶碟tea apprasial saucer

茶之國際標準“鑒定茶組tea apprasial set”包括:“沖泡盅tea apprasial brewing cup”、“評茶碗tea apprasial bowl”、“審茶碟tea apprasial saucer”。
4.103.觀湯色observe tea liquid color
4.104.聞熱香smell hot aroma
4.105.嘗滋味observe tea flavor
4.106.聞中香smell warm aroma
4.107.聞冷香smell cool aroma
4.108.審葉底observe brewed leaves
4.109.看外觀observe appearance

茶之官能鑒定包括:“觀湯色observe tea liquid color”、“聞熱香smell hot aroma”、“嘗滋味observe tea flavor”、“聞中香smell warm aroma”、“聞冷香smell cool aroma”、“審葉底observe brewed leaves”與“看外觀observe appearance”。

4.110.適當的濃度proper strength
4.111.沖泡總次數total brews of vessel
4.112. 第幾次之沖泡 which brew of vessel

泡茶要泡出茶湯最“適當的濃度proper strength”,包括“沖泡總次數 total brews of vessel”中的“第幾次之沖泡which brew of vessel”

4.113茶性tea character

泡茶要將該種茶的“茶性tea character”表現得最好。如降低水溫可以減弱茶湯的“苦味bitterness”,如減少浸泡的時間,可以降低“澀味astringency”。

4.116.太淡too light tasting
4.117.太濃too heavy tasting

泡茶時若可溶物釋出太少,我們稱這時的茶湯為“太淡too light tasting”,若可溶物釋出太多,我們稱為“太濃too heavy tasting”。

4.119.給予口腔的打擊程度mouth intenseness

我們說數道茶的“濃度strength”應力求一致,這濃度是指茶湯“給予口腔的打擊程度mouth intenseness”,不是說“品質quality”的好壞。

4.122.水可溶物的總和TDS-total dissolved solids
4.123.刺激性sharpness degree

茶湯的“稠度richness”是指“水可溶物的總和TDS-total dissolved solids”,與表示強勁度的“刺激性sharpness degree”不同。

4.124.立體感stereo feeling

泡茶要將茶湯泡出適當的“稠度 richness”,而且要泡出“立體感 stereo feeling”,泡出“茶性tea character ”。

4.125.湯量在數泡間之變化tea liquid volume changes per brew

同樣沖泡器,每道湯量會逐漸減少的,泡茶時要留意“湯量在數泡間之變化 tea liquid volume changes per brew”。

4.126.茶湯溫度與口感的關係tea liquid temperature and mouthfeel relationship

品茶時的湯溫會影響口感,要注意“茶湯溫度與口感的關係 tea liquid temperature and mouthfeel relationship”。

4.127.湯前香pre-brew scent
4.128.湯後香post-brew scent

茶葉沖泡之前所顯現的香氣稱為“湯前香pre-brew scent”,沖泡之後在茶湯與葉底所顯現的香氣稱為“湯後香post brew scent”

0.000.水可溶物water soluble substances
4.129.依我們希望的比例與份量溶出expected proportion and quantities to dissolve

泡茶的要領除要求茶湯達到一定的濃度外,尚要求各種“水可溶物 water soluble substances” “依我們希望的比例與份量溶出expected proportion and quantities to dissolve”。

4.130.水可溶物溶解速度的內在因素water TDS dissolved rate intrinsic factors
4.131.水可溶物溶解速度的外在因素water TDS dissolved rate extrinsic factors

泡茶應理解“水可溶物溶解速度的內在因素 water TDS dissolved rate intrinsic factors”與“水可溶物溶解速度的外在因素 water TDS dissolved rate extrinsic factors”。
4.132.最佳狀況optimum condition
4.133.標準濃度standard strength

每道茶都要表現該茶當時的“最佳狀況optimum condition”,這種最佳狀況也是我們追求的所謂“標準濃度standard strength”。

4.134.客觀地欣賞茶的美appreciate tea objectively
4.135.表現你所要述說的意念與思想express your idea
4.136.陶冶心性cultivate one’s character

品茗的意義在“客觀地欣賞茶的美appreciate tea objectively”,並借著泡茶、品飲的過程“表現你所要述說的意念與思想express your idea”。泡茶、品飲、還可以“陶冶心性cultivate one’s character”。

4.137.泡茶師箴言: Tea Master Maxim:
4.138.泡好茶乃茶人體能之訓練、茶道追求之途徑、茶境感悟之本體。Improve Brewing is advancing the ability of the Tea Artist, is the way to the Spirit of Tea, is the enlightenment of the Tea World.

“泡茶師箴言Tea Master Maxim”對泡茶的重要性如此敍述:“泡好茶乃茶人體能之訓練、茶道追求之途徑、茶境感悟之本體Improve Brewing is advancing the ability of the Tea Artist, is the way to the Spirit of Tea, is the enlightenment of the Tea world.”。

第 五 章


Chapter Five
The Ten Tea Methods

5.1.十大茶法The Ten Tea Methods:
5.2.小壺茶法Small Pot Tea Methodology
5.3.蓋碗茶法Cover Bowl Tea Method
5.4.抹茶法Whisking Tea Method
5.5.濃縮茶法Concentrated Tea Method
5.6.大桶茶法Large Capacity Tea Method
5.7.含葉茶法Nonstrained Tea Method
5.8.旅行茶法Travel Tea Method
5.9.冷泡茶法Cold Tea Method
5.10.泡沫茶法Foam Tea Method
5.11.煮茶法Boiling Tea Method

日常應用的泡茶法不外上列十項,稱為“十大茶法 The Ten Tea Methods”
5.12.陸羽小壺茶法24則 Lu-Yu Small Pot Tea Laws: (24 Rules)
5.13.備具Prepare tea ware
5.14.從靜態到動態from still to ready position
5.15.備水prepare water
5.16.溫壺warm pot
5.17.備茶prepare tea
5.18.識茶recognize tea
5.19.賞茶appreciate tea
5.20.溫盅warm pitcher
5.21.置茶put in tea
5.22.聞香smell fragrance
5.23.沖第一道茶first infusion
5.25.燙杯warm cups
5.26.倒茶pour tea
5.27.備杯prepare cups
5.28.分茶divide tea
5.29.端杯奉茶serve tea by cups
5.30.沖第二道茶second infusion
5.31.持盅奉茶serve tea by pitcher
5.32.茶食供應或品泉supply snacks or water (not necessary)
5.33.去渣take out brewed leaves
5.34.賞葉底appreciate leaves (not necessary)
5.35.涮壺rinse pot
5.36.歸位return to seat
5.37.清盅rinse pitcher
5.38.收杯collect cups

由陸羽茶藝中心研發的小壺茶法稱為“陸羽小壺茶法”,其操作過程就如上述所列的“陸羽小壺茶法24則 Lu-Yu Small Pot Tea Laws”。

5.39.倒茶入荷pour tea into holder
5.40.撥茶入荷guide tea into holder

備茶時,緊實的茶使用“倒茶入荷pour tea into holder”的方式,蓬鬆的茶使用“撥茶入荷guide tea into holder”的方式。

5.41.從有法到無法from methodical to free form

泡茶是有“法”可以依循的,但慢慢地要“從有法到無法from methodical to free form”。

5.42.品泉savor water
5.43.品茶savor tea
5.44.空白之美beauty of white space

數道茶之間,我們常給客人一杯白開水,稱為“品泉appreciate water”,是茶道“空白之美beauty of white space”的應用。

5.45.司茶tea brewer
5.46.助手brewer assistant

在茶席上主持泡茶的人稱為“司茶tea brewer”。正式的茶會或人多的場合,可以搭配一位“助手brewer assistant”。

5.47.遞壺法pot passing manner

將壺遞給對方時,應將壺把置於對方的右手邊,這是“遞壺法pot passing manner”所要談論的。


5.49.平均分茶法equal liquid division

直接從泡茶的壺將茶湯分倒到數個杯子時,要使用“平均分茶法equal division”才能將茶湯的濃度分倒平均。

5.50.奉茶serve tea
5.51.請喝茶please have some tea

若是端杯“奉茶serve tea”,要先說:“請喝茶please have some tea”。若是持盅奉茶,則先斟過茶再說:“請喝茶”。

5.52.冷泡法cold brewing

泡茶也可以使用冷水,稱為“冷泡法cold brewing”。

5.53.功夫茶Gongfu Tea

功夫茶Gongfu Tea是流行於中國南方的一種小壺茶法。

5.54.持壺法teapot grip styles
5.55.單手提把點紐one hand pinch handle and touch knob grip
5.56.雙手提把點紐two hand pinch handle and touch knob grip
5.57.雙手穿把點紐two hand grasp handle and touch knob grip
5.58.飛天壺持壺法wing handle grip

“持壺法teapot grip styles”分為“單手提把點紐one hand pinch handle and touch knob grip”、“雙手提把點紐two hand pinch handle and touch knob grip”、“雙手穿把點紐two hand grasp handle and touch knob grip”與“飛天壺持壺法wing handle grip”多種。
5.59.提壺pot moving manner
5.60.持壺gripping manner

“提壺pot moving manner”是在操作臺上,將壺從甲地(如茶船上)移到乙地(如茶巾上)的手法;“持壺pot gripping manner”則是拿起壺來倒茶或倒水的手法。

5.61.泡沫茶foam tea (bubble tea)
5.62.泡沫紅茶 foam black tea

“泡沫茶 foam tea”是調製後起泡沫的茶,“抹茶 fine powder tea”
是調製茶粉使成湯狀的茶。“泡沫紅茶 foam black tea”是屬前者。

5.63.有效控制茶湯濃度的泡茶法brew method for control tea liquid strength effectively

“濃縮茶法concentrated brew method”、“大桶茶法large capacity brew method”與“含葉茶法non-strained brew method”都是“有效控制茶湯濃度的泡茶法brew method for control tea liquid strength effectively”。

5.64.單次浸泡single brewing
5.65.多次浸泡multiple brewing

泡茶時之“浸泡時間”可有“單次浸泡 single brew”與“多次浸泡 multiple brew”之分。

0.00.小壺茶法Small Pot Tea Method
5.66.葉型茶leaf tea
5.67.粉末茶powder tea

“小壺茶法Small Pot Tea Method”是以小型壺具沖泡“葉型茶leaf tea”(非“粉末茶powder tea”)的方法與品飲方式。

5.68.點茶 whisking tea
5.69.泡茶 brewing tea

茶法的演進是先流行“點茶 whisking tea”,然後才流行“泡茶 brewing tea”。

5.70.搖盪式shaking style
5.71.攪動式whisking style
5.72.互沖式pulling style

“搖盪式 shaking style”、“攪動式 whisking style”與“互沖式 pulling style”是泡沫茶的三種造沫方法。

5.73.水可溶物充分溶解 water TDS dissolved completely

含葉茶法是控制在“水可溶物充分溶解 water TDS dissolved completely”後,茶湯恰是可口的濃度。

5.74.泡茶師tea master
5.75.泡茶師檢定考試Tea Master Certification Exam

“泡茶師 tea master”制度在強調泡茶能力的重要性,陸羽茶藝中心等單位每年都定期舉辦“泡茶師檢定考試 Tea Master Certification Exam”。

第 六 章


Chapter Six
Ceramics Arts

6.1.陶瓷藝術家Ceramic Artist (Potter)

以陶瓷為媒介的藝術家稱為“陶瓷藝術家Ceramic Artist”。

6.2.茶陶tea pottery

以茶具為主的陶瓷稱為“茶陶 tea pottery”。

6.8.瓷器 china ware (china)

“陶瓷ceramic”器因胎土燒結程度的不同,從高到低分成“瓷porcelain”、“炻stoneware”、“陶earthenware”三大類。瓷器燒結程度最高,這種燒結的現象又被稱作“瓷化vitrification”。早期的“瓷器”被稱為“china ware”。
6.9.泥料clay body
6.10.泥料陳化clay storing
6.11.陳泥aged clay

將“泥料 clay body”陳放一段長時間,如數年甚或數十年,稱為“泥料陳化clay storing”,陳化後的泥料稱為“陳泥aged clay”。它在成形時的“可塑性plasticity”會增加,燒成的作品,其胎土的光澤度比較好。

6.13.紫砂泥sandy clay
6.14.紫砂purple sandy clay
6.15.朱泥red sandy clay
6.16.緞泥 (段泥) beige sandy clay

陶瓷器的“泥料clay body”中有一類含較粗粒子的色土頗受人們喜愛,稱為“紫砂泥sandy clay”。此類泥料還因燒成後的顏色分為“紫砂purple sandy clay”、“朱泥red sandy clay” 與“緞泥beige sandy clay”。

6.18.泥塊clay lump
6.19.泥粉clay powder

注漿成形法所使用的泥料是“泥漿slip”,拉坯成形法與泥片成形法所使用的泥料是“泥塊clay lump”,壓鑄成形法所使用的泥料是較乾泥塊或“泥粉clay powder”。

6.20.泥礦clay ore

陶瓷器所使用的泥料是從地表或地底深處挖出來的“泥礦clay ore”精煉而成。

6.21.真空練泥de-air clay kneading

泥料開始製作器物前,要將土中的空氣排除,以免燒窯時造成汽爆。有種叫“真空練泥de-air clay kneading”的機器。

6.23.濕坯wet form body
6.24.陰乾air drying
6.25乾坯whitehard body
6.27.土坯form body

泥料“成形forming”以後稱為“濕坯wet form body”,陰乾以後稱為“乾坯whitehard body”,可以入“窯 kiln”燒製。“土坯form body”包括“濕坯wet form body” 與“乾坯whitehard body”。

6.28.手捏成形法pinch method
6.29.注漿成形法slip-casting method
6.30.拉坯成形法hand throwing method
6.31.車坯成形法jiggering method
6.32.泥片成形法slab method
6.33.壓鑄成形法dry pressing method
6.34.拍身筒paddle method
6.35.鑲身筒lute method

陶瓷器的成形方法有“手捏成形法pinch method”、“注漿成形法slip-casting method”、“拉坯成形法hand throwing method”、“車坯成形法jiggering method”、“泥片成形法slab method”、“壓鑄成形法dry pressing method”等。
泥片成形時,在中國宜興地方常使用“拍身筒paddle method”與“鑲身筒lute method”的方法。

6.36.高壓注漿成形法pressure slip-casting method

注漿成形時,為使泥漿灌注到狹窄的邊緣,常使用的方法是“高壓注漿成形法pressure slip-casting method”。


陶瓷器可在“乾坯whitehard body”上施以一層“釉glaze”,這道工序稱為“上釉glazing”。



6.43.透明釉transparent glaze
6.44.釉下彩繪underglaze painting

直接在土坯上彩繪,再覆上一層“透明釉transparent glaze”,稱為“釉下彩繪underglaze painting”,或稱為“釉下彩underglaze”。
6.46.釉上彩繪overglaze painting
6.48.彩燒decorating firing

上釉後將器物燒成,然後出窯,在釉的上面再行彩繪,稱為“釉上彩繪overglaze painting”或“釉上彩overglaze”,繪後當再進窯燒一次,稱為“彩燒decorating firing”。

6.49.青瓷釉celadon glaze

有種能與瓷土一起高溫燒成的青色釉稱為“青瓷釉celadon glaze”,施有這種釉藥的瓷器也就被稱作“青瓷celadon”。

6.51.青花彩繪underglaze blue decoration
6.52.青花underglaze blue

在胎土上繪上一種能與胎土一起高溫燒成的藍色系釉藥,然後再覆蓋上一層“透明釉transparent glaze”,一起進窯燒煉,這種彩繪稱為“青花彩繪underglaze blue decoration”,這種作品稱為“青花underglaze blue”。

6.53.黑釉black glaze
6.54.天目釉Tianmu glaze (Tenmoku glaze)

在胎土上施以一層“黑釉black glaze”,這層黑釉經常起很多色彩上的變化。也被稱為“天目釉tianmu glaze”。

6.55.祭紅altar red glaze
6.56.銅紅copper red glaze
6.57.窯變釉kiln altered glaze
6.58.鈞窯釉Jun kiln glaze

大部分自然礦石調配成的釉藥,燒成後都會起色彩上的變化,如紅色系列的“祭紅altar red glaze”、“銅紅copper red glaze”。如果這種變化較為特殊,而且足以形成一種特殊的釉系,就被稱為“窯變釉kiln altered glaze”,如“鈞窯釉Jun kiln glaze”。

6.59.結晶釉crystalline glaze
6.60.茶葉末tea-dust glaze

有些釉在燒制過程中會有結晶的現象,這種釉就被稱為“結晶釉crystalline glaze”。如“茶葉末tea-dust glaze”就常是這種表現法。

6.61.嬌黃釉tender yellow glaze

有種黃色釉表現得嬌滴滴的感覺,而被稱為“嬌黃釉tender yellow glaze”。

6.62.開片釉crazed glaze
6.63.冰裂紋ice crackle
6.64.雪花snowflake crackle

有些釉在燒成後會陸續產生裂紋,但僅限於釉層,而且裂紋的形態也可在生產者的特意安排下產生如“冰裂紋ice crackle”、“雪花紋snowflake crackle”等的效果。這種燒製過程產生有趣裂紋的釉稱為“開片釉crazed glaze”。

6.65.壺銘pot inscription
有些陶瓷器皿會在胎身上刻或寫上有關的字句以為紀念或作為提示,這些有意義字句稱為“壺銘pot inscription”。

6.66.素燒bisque firing
6.67.本燒final firing

陶瓷器在燒窯時可用低溫預燒一次,以便胎身的修整加工,這樣的預燒稱為“素燒bisque firing”。然後再度進窯燒成,稱為“本燒final firing”。當然也可以從土坯直接進行本燒。

6.68.燒結程度sintering degree

壺具之影響泡茶效果最主要的因素是胎土的“燒結程度sintering degree”,燒結程度愈高,壺身的“散熱速度heat dissipation rate”就愈快,泡出茶湯的香味就愈高頻。燒結程度愈低,壺身的“散熱速度”就愈慢,泡出茶湯的香味就愈低頻。

6.69.燒成溫度firing temperature
6.70.高溫燒結high temperature sintering

“燒成溫度firing temperature”與燒結程度沒有相對應的關係,但“高溫燒結high temperature sintering”的陶瓷器是比較耐用的。

6.71.燒結溫度sintering temperature

每一種泥料的最佳“燒結溫度sintering temperature”是不一樣的,在高溫之下燒結的陶瓷器即為“高溫燒結high temperature sintering”。



6.74.瓦斯窯gas kiln
6.75.柴窯wood kiln
6.76.電窯electric kiln

燒制陶瓷器的窯,因使用的燃料分成“瓦斯窯gas kiln”、“柴窯wood kiln”、“電窯electric kiln”等。

6.77.氧化焰oxidizing flame
6.78.氧化燒oxidation firing

燒窯時的火焰,若充分供給氧氣,就稱為“氧化焰oxidizing flame”,這樣的燒窯法就稱為“氧化燒oxidation firing”。

6.79.還原焰reducing flame
6.80.還原燒reduction firing

燒窯時的火焰,若設法使其缺氧,就稱為“還原焰reducing flame”,這樣的燒窯法就稱為“還原燒reduction firing”。

6.81.收縮率shrinkage rate

陶瓷器從土坯到燒成,有或多或少的“收縮率shrinkage rate”,這極易造成陶瓷器在燒製時的“變形deformation”。

6.83.宜興(江蘇)Yixing (Jiangsu)
6.84.景德鎮(江西)Jingdezhen (Jiangxi)
6.85.鶯歌(臺灣)Yingge (Taiwan)
6.86.陶都pottery capital
6.87.瓷都porcelain capital

中國江蘇的“宜興Yixing”是生產紫砂茶具,江西的“景德鎮Jingdezhen”是生產瓷質茶具的著名“陶都pottery capital”與“瓷都porcelain capital”。臺灣的“鶯歌Yingge”則兩樣都生產。

第 七 章


Chapter Seven
Tea Ware Types and Functionality

7.1.茶器tea ware
7.2.主泡器principle brewing ware
7.3.輔泡器auxiliary brewing ware
7.4.備水器water ware
7.5.儲茶器tea container ware
7.6.泡茶席tea setting

“茶器tea ware”可分為四大種類:“主泡器principle brewing ware”、“輔泡器auxiliary brewing ware”、“備水器water ware”、“儲茶器tea container ware”。機能性地擺設在“泡茶席tea setting”上。

7.6.茶席饰物tea site decorative items
7.7.沖泡器brew ware
7.8.浸泡器steep ware
7.9.調攪器whisk ware
7.10.攪動式調攪器whisking mix ware
7.11.搖盪式調攪器shaking mix ware

泡茶用的“沖泡器 brew ware”分為原形茶的“浸泡器 steep ware”與粉末茶的“調攪器 whisk ware”。調攪器又分為“攪動式調攪器 whisk type ware”與“搖盪式調攪器 shake type ware”。

7.12.壺式浸泡器pot steep ware
7.13.杯式浸泡器cup steep ware
7.14.碗式浸泡器bowl steep ware
7.15.桶式浸泡器vat steep ware

浸泡器又分為“壺式浸泡器 pot steep ware”、“杯式浸泡器 cup steep ware”、“碗式浸泡器 bowl steep ware”與“桶式浸泡器 vat steep ware”。

7.17.同心杯infuser cup
7.18.個人品茗組personal tea set
7.20.壺墊tea pad
7.21.茶船tea boat
7.22.茶盅tea pitcher
7.23.蓋置lid saucer
7.24.奉茶盤tea serving tray
7.25.茶杯tea cup
7.26.杯托cup saucer
7.27.沖泡盅brewing vessel
7.28.蓋碗cover bowl
7.29.茶碗tea bowl
7.30.有流茶碗spout bowl
7.31.奉茶小蓋杯small lidded cup

“主泡器principle brewing ware”包括上述諸多茶器。
7.32.渣匙tea spoon
7.33.茶筅tea whisk
7.34.茶巾盤tea towel tray
7.35.茶荷tea holder
7.36.茶巾tea towel
7.37.茶拂tea brush

“輔泡器auxiliary brewing ware”包括上述各種茶器。

7.39.煮水器heating water ware
7.40.煮水器底座heating base
7.41.煮水壺water kettle
7.42.水盂tea basin

“備水器water ware”包括上述各種茶器。

7.44.茶罐 tea caddy (tea canister)
7.45.茶甕tea urn

“儲茶器tea container ware”包括在茶席上使用的大小“茶罐tea caddy”與大“茶甕tea urn”。

7.46.坐墊seat cushion
7.47.茶具袋tea ware bag
7.48.地衣ground pad

“旅行用茶器travel tea ware”包括上述這些茶具。

7.49.茶車tea cart
7.50.泡茶盤tea brewing tray
7.51.茶桌tea table
7.52.側櫃side table


7.53.壺蓋teapot lid
7.54.壓蓋set lid
7.55.嵌蓋inset lid
7.56.氣孔air vent
7.57.蓋紐lid knob
7.58.蓋延lid insert
7.59.堰圈lid gallery (容納嵌蓋的凹槽)

“壺蓋teapot lid”分成“壓蓋set lid”與“嵌蓋inset lid”。壺蓋上有“氣孔air vent”,提取壺蓋的地方叫“蓋紐lid knob”,壺蓋伸入壺內的部位叫“蓋延lid insert”,容納嵌蓋的凹槽叫“堰圈lid gallery”。

7.60.壺口teapot opening
7.61.壺嘴spout opening

一把壺,沖水的地方叫“壺口teapot opening”,倒出水來的地方叫“壺嘴spout opening”。

7.63.水孔teapot drain
7.64.單孔hole drain
7.65.網孔mesh drain
7.66.蜂巢ball drain
7.67.濾網 strainer

連接壺身與壺嘴的部位叫“壺流spout”,壺流與壺身相接的地方一定有“水孔teapot drain”。水孔有多種型式,如“單孔hole drain”、“網孔mesh drain”、“蜂巢ball drain”。遇到單孔式的水孔,可在水孔上加裝一片“濾網 strainer”。

7.68.平面濾網flat strainer
7.69.球型濾網ball strainer

不論是壺身或是外加的“濾網 strainer”,都可分成“平面濾網flat strainer” 與“球型濾網ball strainer”。

7.70.壺頸teapot neck
7.71.壺肩teapot shoulder
7.72.壺腹teapot body
7.73.壺底teapot bottom

壺身可有“壺頸teapot neck”、“壺肩teapot shoulder”、“壺腹teapot body”、“壺底teapot bottom”這幾個部位。

7.75.壺足pot foot
7.76.底著flat bottom

壺底如果沒有“圈足footring”或“壺足pot foot”而直接以底部站立,這樣的壺底叫做“底著flat bottom”。

7.77.杯形cup shape
7.78.深度cup depth
7.79.杯色cup color

“茶杯 teacup”影響到“茶湯欣賞tea liquid appreciation”的因素有“杯形cup shape”、“深度cup depth”與“杯色cup color”。



7.85.好提easy to grip

“斷水non-drip”、“濾渣strain”、“好提easy to grip”是茶壺很重要的三大基本功能。

7.86.內膽inside infuser


7.87.吸水率water absorption rate

陶瓷器的“吸水率water absorption rate”很重要,吸水率太高的沖泡器不宜使用。
7.88.壺的保溫能力teapot heat preservation capacity

壺之影響泡茶的效果在於“壺的保溫能力 teapot heat preservation capacity”,即壺的“散熱速度heat dissipation rate”。“密度高high density”者、“胎身薄thin body”者散熱速度快,即所謂之“保溫效果heat preservation effect”差;“密度低low density”者、“胎身厚thick body”者散熱速度慢,即所謂之保溫效果好。

7.90.土色clay color
7.91.釉色glaze color

壺具因“材質material”、“土色clay color”、“釉色glaze color”、“形狀shape”,造成各種不同的感受與泡茶效果。

7.93.壺把teapot handle
7.94.側提壺back handle pot
7.95.橫把壺side handle pot
7.96.飛天壺wing handle pot
7.97.提梁壺top handle pot

從“壺把teapot handle”的形式,可將壺分成“側提壺back handle pot”、“橫把壺side handle pot”、“飛天壺wing handle pot”與“提梁壺top handle pot”四大類。

7.98.圈頂式茶盅round wing tea pitcher

“圈頂式茶盅round wing tea pitcher”的拿法是從盅的圈頂拿取。
7.99.養壺teapot nurturing

將壺細心照顧、保養,稱為“養壺teapot nurturing”。

7.100.壺藝Teapot Arts

以壺為主的茶器已形成一門獨立的學科,稱為“壺藝Teapot Arts”,有的學校開設有“茶陶”專業。

第 八 章

茶 会

Chapter Eight
Tea Functions

The special way of Wu-Wo Tea Ceremony and its Seven Principles

以下七條是無我茶會特殊做法及其七大精神 The special way of Wu-Wo Tea Ceremony and its Seven Principles
8.2.座位由抽籤決定——無尊卑之分 Seating arrangement is chosen randomly——No matter to social status
8.3.隨遇而安feel at ease under all circumstances

參加無我茶會,是由“抽籤決定座位,無尊卑之分 seating arrangement is chosen randomly, no matter of social status”,且“隨遇而安 feel at ease under all circumstances”。

8.4.依同一方向奉茶——無報償之心 Serving tea in the same direction——No reward is expected
8.5.單邊奉茶 same direction tea serving
8.6.奉茶方向tea serving direction
8.7.無所為而為的奉茶方式the style of serving is without intentions

無我茶會的奉茶方式是“依同一方向奉茶,無報償之心 serve tea in the same direction, no reward is expected”。這種“單邊奉茶 same direction tea serving”的“奉茶方向tea serving direction”是種“無所為而為的奉茶方式 the style of serving without intentions”。

Accept and appreciate different teas——No bias

參加無我茶會的茶葉自備,而且種類不拘。希望大家“接納、欣賞各種茶,無好惡之心 accept and appreciate different teas, no bias”。

8.9.努力把茶泡好——求精進之心 Brew the best one can——Concentrate and improve

每人從左或從右單邊奉出約定的杯數,也留一杯給自己,這樣每人就可以喝到自己與別人的茶。把茶泡壞了,是對不起自己、對不起別人、對不起茶的。無我茶會希望大家“努力把茶泡好,求精進之心 brew the best one can, concentrate and improve”。

8.10.無須指揮與司儀——遵守公共約定 No director ——Everyone follows the public announcement

無我茶會是“依事先排定的程式與約定進行 follow the agreed schedule and practices”,“無需指揮與司儀 no director or master of ceremonies”,希望大家“遵守公共約定 follows the public rules”。

8.11.泡茶席間不語——培養默契、體現團體律動之美 Remain silent during brewing——To cooperate and appear in group rhythm and harmony

無我茶會在開始泡茶後即“席間不語 remain silent during brewing time”,一方面“培養默契 cultivate tacit understanding”,一方面“體現團體律動之美 express group rhythm and harmony”。

8.12.泡茶方式不拘——無流派與地域之分 Not confined to any tea brewing manner——No distinction of school or region

無我茶會的茶具由與會者自行攜帶,且“泡茶方式不拘,無流派與地域之分 not confined to any brewing manner, no distinction of school or region”。

8.13.圍成圈圈泡茶gather to form circle to brew tea

無我茶會的基本形式是大家“圍成圈圈泡茶 gather to form circle to brew tea”。

8.14.視為接續regard as connected

大家圍成圈圈泡茶的“圈圈”是只要頭尾相接即可,不論是圓形、方形,還是不規則的形狀。即使中間被一顆大樹或小橋隔開,也可以“視為接續 regard as connected”。

8.15.席地而坐sit on the ground
無我茶會泡茶時,喜歡大家“席地而坐 sit on the ground”,這樣不但方便,而且人與人之間沒有桌椅的阻擋,更顯親密。

8.16.精儉simple and exquisite
8.17.茶具力求簡便strive for simplified tea ware
8.18.行政工作力求簡便strive for simplified administration affairs
8.19.參加無我茶會的目的力求簡單strive for simplified participation goals of Wu-Wo Tea Ceremony

無我茶會遵守“精儉原則 simple and exquisite”:所帶的“茶具力求簡便 strive for simplified tea ware”、舉辦茶會的“行政工作力求簡便 strive for simplified administration affairs”、個人“參加無我茶會的目的力求簡單 strive for simplified participation goals of Wu-Wo Tea Ceremony”。

8.20.一人獨飲sole drinking
8.21.兩人對飲couple drinking
8.22.一人到千萬人的無我茶會one to ten million people Wu-Wo Tea Ceremony

無我茶會不拘人數多寡,從“一人獨飲 sole drinking”、“兩人對飲 couple drinking”到千萬人都可以舉行,所以說是“一人到千萬人的無我茶會 one to ten million people Wu-Wo Tea Ceremony”。

8.23.無我茶會的工作人員Wu-Wo Tea Ceremony staff

“無我茶會的工作人員 Wu-Wo Tea Ceremony staff”最好都是由參與無我茶會泡茶的人兼任,但負責攝錄影的人員比較不容易做到。

8.24.會前準備事項preparations before the Wu-Wo Tea Ceremony
8.25.無我茶會名稱Particular Name of the Wu-Wo Tea Ceremony
8.26.茶會進行程式Ceremony Schedule
8.27.工作人員開始佈置會場task members begin arranging the site
8.28.與會人員開始報到入座participants began to check in and then find seats
8.29.開始泡茶begin brewing
8.30.會後活動開始begin the Post Ceremony Activity

每次舉辦無我茶會的“會前準備事項preparations before the Wu-Wo Tea Ceremony”包括訂定該次“無我茶會名稱 name of the Wu-Wo Tea Ceremony”,接著排定“茶會進行程式 Ceremony Schedule”,例如何時“工作人員開始佈置會場 task members begin arranging the site”、何時“與會人員開始報到入座 participants began to check in and then find seats”、何時“開始泡茶 begin brewing”、何時“會後活動開始 begin the Post Ceremony Activity”等。

8.31.茶會名稱標示tea ceremony name sign
8.32.內圈中心點inner circle’s center point

會場上要標示出該次無我茶會的名稱,最重要的“茶會名稱標示 tea ceremony name sign”應在於泡茶隊伍的“內圈中心點 inner circle’s center point”,而且相對的二面都要有標示。
8.33.工作分配task distribution
8.34.場地組site arrangement team
8.35.會務組administration team
8.36.紀錄組recording team
8.37.主辦單位hosting sponsor
8.39.公告事項Public Announcement

會前的準備期間還要從事“工作分配 task distribution”,例如“場地組 site arrangement team”、“會務組 administration team”、“紀錄組 recording team”等等。然後將會程、工作分配,以及“主辦單位 hosting sponsor”、“召集人convener”等資料匯整成“公告事項 Public Announcement”,分發給與會人員。

8.40.會前說明會Proceeding Instruction Meeting

為使第一次參加無我茶會的人知道茶會是如何進行的?其精神何在?應該為他們舉辦“會前說明會 Proceeding Instruction Meeting”。

8.41.無我茶會茶具Wu-Wo Tea Ceremony tea ware
8.42.旅行茶具travel tea ware
8.43.不帶珍貴茶具do not bring valuable tea ware

與會者參加無我茶會所攜帶的茶具稱為“無我茶會茶具 Wu-Wo Tea Ceremony tea ware”,是種“旅行茶具 travel tea ware”,以精儉為原則,且“不帶珍貴茶具 do not bring valuable tea ware”。

8.44.無我茶會基本道具Wu-Wo Tea Ceremony basic ware
8.45.坐墊seat cushion
8.46.泡茶器tea brewing utensil
8.47.茶盅tea pitcher
8.49.奉茶盤tea serving tray
8.50.旅行用保溫瓶travel thermos
8.52.茶巾tea towel
8.53.有流茶碗spout bowl
8.54.抹茶罐powder tea caddy
8.55.茶杓tea scoop
8.56.茶筅tea whisk

“無我茶會基本道具 Wu-Wo Tea Ceremony basic ware”包括:方便席地而坐的“坐墊 seat cushion”、用以泡茶的“泡茶器 tea brewing utensil”、用以盛裝茶湯的“茶盅 tea pitcher”、用以奉茶的“茶杯 teacup”、方便端杯或端盅奉茶的“奉茶盤 tea serving tray”、攜帶泡茶用水的“旅行用保溫瓶 travel thermos”、計算茶葉浸泡時間的“計時器 timer”、吸幹水滴擦拭茶杯的“茶巾 tea towel”。如果泡的是抹茶,則泡茶器改為“有流茶碗 spout bowl”,另備裝抹茶的“抹茶罐 powder tea caddy”、舀抹茶的“茶杓 tea scoop”、攪擊抹茶的“茶筅 tea whisk”。

8.57.茶具的攜帶tea ware carrying
8.58.包壺巾packing wrap
8.59.杯套cup cover
8.60.泡茶巾brewing cloth
8.61.茶具袋tea ware bag

因為無我茶會茶具是旅行茶具,所以“茶具的攜帶 tea ware carrying”變得很重要。茶壺要有“包壺巾 packing wrap”包裹,茶杯要有“杯套 cup covers”保護,“泡茶巾brewing cloth”可用“包壺巾 packing wrap”代替。然後將這些茶具都放入“茶具袋 tea ware bag”內攜帶。

8.62.夜晚無我茶會Night Wu-Wo Tea Ceremony
8.63.夜晚茶會燈Night Tea Ceremony lamp

於夜晚舉辦的無我茶會稱為“夜晚無我茶會 Night Wu-Wo Tea Ceremony”,目的在提醒人們注意夜色之美。參加夜晚無我茶會時要另備“夜晚茶會燈 Night Tea Ceremony lamp”。

8.64.防潮墊布waterproof pad
8.65.地衣ground shawl

為防地面潮濕或有塵土,可備一條“防潮墊布 waterproof pad”,一般稱作“地衣 ground shawl”。然後才將坐墊、茶具擺在上面。

8.66.茶的攜帶tea carrying

“茶的攜帶 tea carrying”是於出門前將茶放入壺內,這樣就不必再多備茶葉罐了。

8.67.泡茶用水的準備brewing water preparation

“泡茶用水的準備 brewing water preparation”也是在出門前將所需溫度的熱水裝入保溫瓶內攜帶。從裝水到使用的期間不要超過半天,下午要用的熱水,中午出門前才裝。

無我茶會是使用簡便的旅行用茶具,所以茶具的使用功能要好,如茶壺的“濾渣功能 strain”、“斷水功能 non-drip”。

8.70.泡兩種茶的規劃brew two kinds of tea planning

無我茶會如果是“泡兩種茶的規劃 brew two kinds of tea planning”,可將第二種茶用另一把壺裝妥,以另一條包壺巾包裹。泡完第一種茶後,將泡第一種茶的壺用包壺巾包紮起來,換上新的壺包。

8.71.供應茶食的規劃supply snacks planning

無我茶會如果有“供應茶食的規劃 supply snacks planning”,就要備一張餐巾紙或茶食盤放在自己茶席的被奉茶區上,讓別人前來奉茶食。

8.72.穿脫方便的鞋子convenient shoes to wear and take off

參加無我茶會時,要穿一雙“穿脫方便的鞋子 convenient shoes to wear and take off”,以便脫掉鞋子坐在坐墊上。

8.73.工作檢查表task check list

茶會前的各項準備工作,最好設計成“工作檢查表 task check list”,逐項檢查之。

8.74.場地可容納人數site capacity
8.75.場地規劃圖site planning chart
8.76.茶會隊形tea ceremony formation

選定場地時,首先要計算出“場地可容納人數 site capacity”,接著要畫出“場地規劃圖 site planning chart”;這時“茶會隊形 tea ceremony formation”就會產生。

8.77.號碼的方向 seat number marker direction
8.78.就坐方向seating direction
8.79.向心坐concentric circles(seat facing center)

茶會隊形不論是圍成幾圈,每圈的人都要面向圓心就坐,因此擺設號碼牌時要留意“號碼的方向 seat number marker direction”對“就坐方向 seating direction”的引導作用。一般人會依號碼牌上的數位或文字方向就座。無我茶會是圍成一圈或數圈泡茶,每一圈的茶友都要“向心坐 seat facing center”,也就是向著圓心的方向就坐。

8.80.座號排列方向seat numbering direction

“座號排列方向 seat numbering direction”要依“奉茶方向 tea serving direction”而定,若此次無我茶會是向左奉茶,則號碼牌要依順時鐘方向排列,若向右奉茶,則依逆時鐘方向排列。因為一般人有依號碼次序行動的習慣。

8.81.安排座位 arrange seats

“安排座位arrange seats”的工作包括上述的“號碼牌製作seat mumber marker making”、“座位的區段劃分seat section dividing”、“就坐方向的引導seat direction guide”、“座號排列方向seat numbering direction”的訂定,以及實際指揮工作人員在半小時以內將號碼牌擺設完畢。
8.82.席地泡茶時的一人空間individual′s space for brewing on the ground

無我茶會“席地泡茶時的一人空間 individual′s space for brewing on the ground”需要左右80cm、前後160cm。

8.83.相鄰兩人間的走道two neighbors path

“相鄰兩人間的走道 two neighbors path”最少要40cm。

8.84.座位前方的奉茶空間serving space for others in front of one’s site

“座位前方的奉茶空間serving space for others in front of one’s site”要有80cm。如果正對面就是泡茶隊伍的另一邊,對方的奉茶空間也要有80cm,否則無法同時讓兩個人奉茶給相對的兩個人。

8.85.報到處位置check-in location
8.86.座號的起點beginning seat number

“報到處位置 check-in location”最好設於與會者最先到達的地方,最好也處於“座號的起點 beginning seat number”。

8.87.音響主機與喇叭位置audio equipment and speaker locations
8.88.解說員位置narrator location
8.89.表演者位置performer location

勘查地形時要就電源所在地與風向、地形決定“音響主機與喇叭位置 audio equipment and speaker locations”,隨後再決定“解說員位置 narrator location”與“表演者位置 performer location”,因為他們都會應用到音響設備。

8.90.公共走道public path
8.91.會場範圍標示ceremony area markers

在公共場所舉行無我茶會時,要在適當的位置留出“公共走道 public path”,而且以適當的方法做“會場範圍標示 ceremony area markers”。

8.92.可供使用的廁所available restrooms
8.93.臨時性廁所temporary toilet
8.94.野外廁所outdoor latrine

舉辦無我茶會的地方要有“可供使用的廁所 available restrooms”,否則除租用“臨時性廁所 temporary toilet”外,就是自行構築“野外廁所 outdoor latrine”。

8.95.下雨時的第二方案substitute plan for rain

找尋場地時,還要考慮“下雨時的第二方案 substitute plan for rain”。

8.96.號碼牌seat number marker

座位“號碼牌 seat number marker”可以使用紙片放在地上、也可以使用竹片釘在草地上、也可以把準備送給與會者的紀念品當做號碼牌。

8.97.座位的區段劃分seat section dividing

“座位的區段劃分 seat section dividing”是讓多位工作人員可同時擺設號碼牌的有效方法。

8.98.與會人員開始報到入座participants began to check in and then find seats
8.99.簽條drawing ticket
8.100.號碼條number slip
8.101.簽名條sign slip
8.102.簽袋drawing bag
8.103.簽名條回收袋signed slip return bag

為了與會者的報到,主辦單位事先必須準備抽“座位號碼”的“簽條 drawing ticket”。簽條包括“號碼條 number slip”與“簽名條 sign slip”二部分。還要有個“簽袋 drawing bag”放置簽條、有個“簽名條回收袋signed slip return bag”回收簽名條。

8.104.母子簽family ticket

如果大人帶有尚未能自行安全操作的小朋友參加無我茶會,抽籤的時候可以準備“母子簽 family ticket”供他們抽取,以便他們的茶席能在一起。

8.105.座位標示圖seat chart

如果這是一場數百人的無我茶會,為方便大家尋找座位,可備一張“座位標示圖 seat chart”放在“報到處 check-in area”。

8.106.報到處check-in area
8.107.報到處停止作業時間the closing time of check-in procedure
8.108.報到處人員the check-in staff

個人茶席設置完成後就是“茶具觀摩與聯誼時間 Tea Ware and Friendship time”,到了這個時間的後半段,就是“報到處停止作業時間 the closing time of check-in procedure”,“報到處人員 the check-in staff”趕緊抽籤入座設席。

8.109.行動不便者的座位安排disabled seat arrangement

對“行動不便者的座位安排 disabled seat arrangement”,可保留較為方便的座位簽條讓他們抽取。

8.110.人數與座位數的控制handling the amount of participants and seats

“人數與座位數的控制 handling the amount of participants and seats”是指實際出席的人數與座位數的配合。應機動性地增減簽條與座位數以配合報到的人數。

8.111.報到手續check-in procedure
8.114.對時synchronize watches
8.116.分發向圍觀者奉茶的杯子distributing spectator cups

“報到手續 check-in procedure”包括“註冊 registration”,核對是否已報過名、繳過費;“識別 identification”,發給尚未有識別證的人員;“對時 synchronize watches”,請大家核對手錶上的時間;“抽籤 drawing”,抽取“設席位置”的號碼;“分發向圍觀者奉茶的杯子 distributing spectator cups”,如果安排有向外奉茶。

8.117.事先報名register in advance
8.118.現場報名register at site

參加無我茶會分為“事先報名 register in advance”與“現場報名 register at site”。我們鼓勵事先報名,這樣比較容易掌握人數,也簡化報到處的工作。

8.119.未帶茶具的與會者participants without tea ware

“未帶茶具的與會者 participants without tea ware”包括未能一起泡茶的“品茗後活動 post tea drinking activity”表演者與臨時和與會者到場的親人或朋友。在未安排對外奉茶時,後者可以與前者一起參與抽籤就座,但要避免這些不泡茶者二人以上集中在一起。他們可以在座位上接受奉茶,只是他們左邊或右邊的茶友少掉一杯或兩杯被奉的茶而已。但如果是已報名或擬現場報名的“未帶茶具者”就不可以參加抽籤入座了。

8.120.茶席設置tea site setup
8.121.選定的茶席與泡茶方式ceremony site and brewing style decided

無我茶會先是報到,抽完簽後找自己的座位,然後從事自己的“茶席設置 tea site setup”。茶具與泡茶方式都無限制,但要把您“選定的茶席與泡茶方式ceremony site and brewing style decided”做得您當時所能的最好。

8.122.開始泡茶時間time to begin brewing
8.123.缺席者的號碼牌 absent seat number marker

到了快“開始泡茶時間 time to begin brewing”,場地組的人要將“缺席者的號碼牌 absent seat number marker”收掉。

8.124.就坐方式sitting style
8.125.跪坐kneel sitting

無我茶會喜歡席地泡茶,但“就坐方式 sitting style”不拘,如果身體允許,最好採取“跪坐 kneel sitting”的方式。

8.126.坐墊前緣中心點the middle front side of the seat cushion

如何讓每個茶席能依場地規劃時所希望的泡茶隊形來設置呢?要領就是將“坐墊前緣中心點 the middle front side of the seat cushion”對準號碼牌。

8.127.別人前來奉茶的奉茶區cup place for others to serve

設席時要將自己“泡茶區”的前端空出來,作為“別人前來奉茶的奉茶區 cup place for others to serve”。

8.128.報到check in
8.128.茶具觀摩與聯誼時間Tea Ware and Friendship Time(appreciate tea ware)
8.129.聯誼人員friendship staff

自己的茶席設置完成後,就是“茶具觀摩與聯誼時間Tea Ware and Friendship Time”。若與會者是來自不熟識的團體,可設置“聯誼人員 friendship staff”幫助大家的相識。

8.130.向圍觀者奉茶spectator tea serving
8.132.對外解說narration for spectators

如果這次無我茶會決定要“向圍觀者奉茶spectator tea serving”,就要設置“解說員 narrator” “對外解說 narration for spectators”,讓圍觀者知道這群人在做什麼。

8.133.一次性紙杯disposable cups
8.134.紀念性杯子commemorative cups

如果這次茶會安排有向圍觀者奉茶,就要準備“一次性紙杯 disposable cups”或讓他們帶回去做紀念的“紀念性杯子 commemorative cups”。

8.135.簡便泡茶法Simplified Tea Method
8.136.奉茶不一定得依前後次序no need to keep sequence for tea serving

無我茶會希望大家使用“簡便泡茶法 Simplified Tea Method”。“奉茶不一定得依前後次序 no need to keep sequence for tea serving ”,收杯時也是一樣。

8.137.空位empty seat
8.138.不泡茶的與會者non tea brewing participants

奉茶時遇到“空位 empty seat”,不要將它算做是一個奉茶的對象;但遇到“不泡茶的與會者 non tea brewing participants”,就要將它算做奉茶的對象了。

8.139.杯位放置規則cup placing rule
8.140.杯位次序cup placing sequence
8.141.從奉茶者的右邊算起count from the server's right side
奉茶時“杯位放置規則 cup placing rule”是:奉給第一位客人時,放在他的“被奉茶區”的第一個位置;奉給第二位客人時,放在他的被奉茶區的第二個位置;奉給第三位客人時,放在他的被奉茶區的第三個位置,自己的一杯,放在自己的被奉茶區的第四個位置。“杯位次序 cup placing sequence” 是“從奉茶者的右邊算起 count from the server′s right side”。

8.142.泡茶杯數與泡茶次數number of teacups and number of brews

該次茶會的“泡茶杯數與泡茶次數 number of teacups and number of brews”會載明於公告事項上,與會者依此攜帶所需的杯子與相應大小的茶壺、保溫瓶,且備相應份量的茶葉或抹茶。

8.143.泡茶与奉茶brewing and serving
8.143.奉茶間的禮節etiquette during the tea serving
8.144.奉茶者tea server
8.145.被奉茶者people that have been served

“奉茶間的禮節etiquette during the tea serving”是指“奉茶者 tea server”與“被奉茶者 people that have been served”間應有的禮貌。
8.146.何時開始喝茶 when to begin drinking
8.147.從哪一杯開始喝起 which cup to begin drinking

“何時開始喝茶 when to begin drinking”呢?自己被奉的茶到齊後就可以開始喝茶。“從哪一杯開始喝起which cup to begin drinking”呢?都可以。

8.148.全體向特定對象奉茶everyone serves tea to the same designation
8.149.一飲同心drinking in one mind

某些紀念性無我茶會是“全體向特定對象奉茶 everyone serves tea to the same designation”,而且只奉第一道。待收杯時,將這一杯收回,若這一杯尚未被喝掉,回座位後將之喝掉。這是體會“一飲同心 drinking in one mind”的做法。

8.150.茶湯的補救措施tea liquid adjustment
8.151.愛茶love tea

如果自己的茶泡壞了,可以從事“茶湯的補救措施 tea liquid adjustment”;如果別人奉來的茶太濃了,可以調一些水再喝。這都是茶人“愛茶 love tea”的心情。

8.152.靜坐tranquil sitting
8.153.品茗後的空白之美white space beauty of post tea drinking
8.154.播放式的音樂欣賞broadcast music
8.155.現場音樂表演live music

喝完最後一道茶,無我茶會常會安排一段“品茗後活動”。大家靜坐原位,或聆聽一段音樂,或單純“靜坐 tranquil sitting”二、三分鐘,回味一下剛才茶會的情境,也讓茶味在口腔內回蕩,這是“品茗後的空白之美 white space beauty of post tea drinking”。聆聽的音樂可以是“播放式的音樂欣賞 broadcast music”,也可以是“現場音樂表演 live music”。

8.156.泡茶的隊伍裏in the brewers’ formation

品茗後活動如果是現場音樂表演,表演者的位置最好是在“泡茶的隊伍裏 in the brewers’ formation”,而且表演者最好就是參加無我茶會的人。

8.157.擦拭自己用過的杯子wipe used cups

品茗後活動後,大家“擦拭自己用過的杯子 wipe used cups”,出去收回自己的杯子。

8.158.最外圈的泡茶者後面behind the brewers of most outer circle

解說員的位置應設置於泡茶隊伍“最外圈的泡茶者後面 behind the brewers of most outer circle”。

8.159.其中哪幾道奉給圍觀者which brews for the spectator servings
8.160.奉給圍觀者的茶泡妥後after spectator tea has been brewed
8.161.每道加奉一人給圍觀者every brew add one serving for one spectator
8.162.向圍觀者奉茶spectator tea serving
8.163.圈內奉茶neighbor tea serving

這次茶會所泡的茶,“其中哪幾道奉給圍觀者 which brews for the spectator servings”會事先載明於公告事項上。若這道茶是以杯子奉茶給圍觀者,當“奉給圍觀者的茶泡妥後 after spectator tea has been brewed”,才從茶具袋內取出杯子,分茶而後奉茶。若這次對圍觀者奉茶的方式是“每道加奉一人給圍觀者 every brew add one serving for one spectator”,則是第一道在奉“圈內茶友”的杯子外另加一個奉給圍觀者的杯子,第二道以後則是在持盅奉完圈內茶友的茶後再倒一杯茶給圍觀者。
如果此次茶會安排“向圍觀者奉茶 spectator tea serving”,可約定大家泡四道,一、三道向“圈內奉茶 neighbor tea serving ”,二、四道向圍觀者奉茶。

8.164.特別邀請的貴賓invited honored guests

如果有“特別邀請的貴賓 invited honored guests”,在對圍觀者奉茶的茶會上,只要依一般的圍觀者接待即可。若無對圍觀者奉茶,可安排一位或數位圈內泡茶者每道加奉一人給特別邀請的貴賓。

8.165.會後合影ending group photo
8.166.會後活動Post Tea Ceremony Activity

茶會在收拾個人的茶具後就算結束,然後進行“會後合影 ending group photo”。合影後還可以另行安排“會後活動 Post Tea Ceremony Activity”。

8.167.一壺二杯一熱水 one pot, two cups, and a thermos
8.168.個人旅行茶具personal travel tea ware
無我茶會使用的是比較完備的“旅行用茶具”,還可以從中擇取“一壺二杯一熱水 one pot, two cups, and a thermos”組成“個人旅行茶具 personal travel tea ware”。 這樣的茶具組合方式是日常生活可以應用到的,不限於無我茶會。

8.169.親子無我茶會Families Wu-Wo Tea Ceremony
8.170.老吾老以及人之老,幼吾幼以及人之幼to take care of one′s own aged parents first and then extend the same care to the aged people in general to look after others’children as well as one’s own

利用無我茶會的形式在母親節舉辦“親子無我茶會Families Wu-Wo Tea Ceremony”是很有意義的,讓大家體會“老吾老以及人之老,幼吾幼以及人之幼 to take care of one′s own aged parents first and then extend the same care to the aged people in general to look after others’ children as well as one’s own”的境界。

8.171.單位無我茶會Group Wu-Wo Tea Ceremony

無我茶會也可以在機關、公司內,針對內部的員工舉行,是為“單位無我茶會 Group Wu-Wo Tea Ceremony”。可促進單位同仁的和諧與互助合作。

8.172.杯子等茶具的衛生cups and tea ware hygiene

無我茶會的茶具是等回家後才清洗的。由於是公共性的茶會,所以大家都要很重視“杯子等茶具的衛生 cups and tea ware hygiene”。

8.173.紀念性無我茶會Event Service Wu-Wo Tea Ceremony
為了結婚典禮、慶祝生日、開幕式或告別式等而舉辦的無我茶會稱為“紀念性無我茶會 Event Service Wu-Wo Tea Ceremony”。

8.174.不設貴賓席與長官致辭時間do not set up honored guest table or speech time

無我茶會“不設貴賓席與長官致辭時間 do not set up honored guest table or speech time”。

8.175.品茗後活動Post Tea Drinking Activity
8.176.不陪襯音樂do not accompany with music

無我茶會除“品茗後活動Post Tea Drinking Activity”可以安排音樂欣賞外,在茶會進行間”不陪襯音樂 do not accompany with music”。

8.177.無我茶會所需時間required time of Wu-Wo Tea Ceremony
8.178.國際無我茶會International Wu-Wo Tea Ceremony

一場“無我茶會所需時間 required time of Wu-Wo Tea Ceremony”不會超過兩小時的,包括報到時間、設席時間、茶具觀摩與聯誼時間、泡茶時間、收具時間、合影時間。即使是大型的“國際無我茶會 International Wu-Wo Tea Ceremony”。

8.179.無emptiness (wu)
8.180.有 being (you)
8.181.有了以後的無 have and then empty
8.182.彩虹會旗rainbow flag
無我茶會強調的是“無emptiness”的理念,是“有了以後的無 have and then empty”,有如“彩虹會旗 rainbow flag”,在七彩融合之後顯現出的無。

8.183.無我茶會指導老師Wu-Wo Tea Ceremony Instructor
8.184.茶道老師Tea Lore Instructor
8.185.茶道教室Tea Lore Classroom
8.186.茶道教室主任老師Chief Instructor of the Tea Lore Classroom

為推廣無我茶會,在各地設置有“無我茶會指導老師 Wu-Wo Tea Ceremony Instructor”,培養能參加無我茶會的人。接著再從“無我茶會指導老師”中甄選出“茶道老師 Tea Lore Instructor”,從無我茶會擴充到其他茶學基本知識的傳授。等到這些茶道老師中有人可以在自己的地方成立“茶道教室 Tea Lore Classroom”,經甄選通過後再授以“茶道教室主任老師 Chief Instructor of the Tea Lore Classroom”的資格。以上是無我茶會的師資培訓制度。

8.187.無我茶會道場Wu-Wo Tea Ceremony Hall

設置“無我茶會道場 Wu-Wo Tea Ceremony Hall”可以讓各地方的人更方便地參加無我茶會。

8.188.第一座無我茶會紀念碑Original Wu-Wo Tea Ceremony Monument

一九九一年十月十七日,第二屆國際無我茶會在武夷山幔亭峰舉辦後,於山腳下的武夷山莊草坪上豎立了“第一座無我茶會紀念碑 Original Wu-Wo Tea Ceremony Monument”。
8.189.1990年與臺北 Taipei, 1990
8.190.無我茶會誕生時間與地點Created time and place of Wu-Wo Tea Ceremony

“1990年與臺北 Taipei, 1990”是“無我茶會誕生時間與地點Created time and place of Wu-Wo Tea Ceremony”。

第 九 章


Chapter Nine
Chinese Tea History

9.1.貢茶 Tribute Tea
9.2.長興紫筍Changzing Shoot Tea
9.3.陽羨茶Yangxian Tea
9.4.蒙頂茶Mengding Tea
9.5.龍團鳳餅Dragon and Phoenix Cake

中國古代帝王時代,民間有特好的茶都會進獻給皇上,這些茶就叫作“貢茶 Tribute Tea”。如上述這些茶。

9.6.紧压绿茶compressed green tea
9.7.祁紅Keemun Black
9.8.正山小種 Lapsang Souchong (Smoked Black tea)
9.9.坦洋工夫Tanyang Gongfu
9.10.英德紅茶Yingde Black Tea
9.11.滇紅Dian Black

9.12.廬山雲霧Lushan Mist
9.13.信陽毛尖Xinyang Tip
9.14.仙人掌茶Cactus Tea


9.15.瑞草魁Lucky Grass King
9.16.不夜侯 Sleepless Marquis

這些都是茶的文化性別名,“瑞草魁Lucky Grass King”是說茶為眾草之王,“不夜侯Sleepless Marquis”是表明喝茶提神的功效。而且都是陸羽的稱號。

9.17.曲水流觴 Winding Creek and Floating Cups
9.18.蘭亭Orchid Pavilion
9.197.陸羽Lu Yu
9.20.《茶經》Tea Classic
9.21.蘇廙Su Yi
9.22.《十六湯品》Sixteen Waters and Tea Liquids
9.23.阎立本Yan Liben
9.24.《蕭翼賺蘭亭》Xiao Yi Procures the Orchid Pavilion

中國唐代,“陸羽 Lu Yu” 寫了“《茶經 Tea Classic》”,是世界上第一本完整的茶書。“蘇廙Su Yi”寫了《十六湯品Sixteen Waters and Tea Liquids》,開始描述用水與茶汤。“阎立本Yan Liben”畫了“《蕭翼賺蘭亭Xiao Yi Procures the Orchid Pavilion》”,是现在發现到最早描繪煮茶的畫作。

9.25.一之源One Origin
9.26.二之具Two Tools
9.27.三之造Three Making
9.28.四之器Four Utensils
9.29.五之煮Five Boiling
9.30.六之飲Six Drinking
9.31.七之事Seven History
9.32.八之出Eight Growing Regions
9.33.九之略Nine Simplifying
9.34.十之圖Ten Pictorializing
9.35.三卷十章Three Scrolls Ten Chapters

以上是陸羽《茶經 Tea Classic》“三卷十章Three Scrolls Ten Chapters”的每章內容。

9.36.審安老人Old Man Shenan (Shen′an)
9.37.茶具圖贊Tea Ware Drawings and Praises

中國宋代“審安老人Old Man Shen′an”寫了一本“《茶具圖贊Tea Ware Drawings and Praises》”,以擬人法的方式描述了當時12種常用的茶具。

9.38.宋徽宗Emperor Song Huizong
9.39.《大觀茶論》Da Guan Tea Treaties
9.40.《文會圖》Literary Gathering

中國宋代有位皇帝叫“徽宗Huizong”,不只繪有著名的“《文會圖Literary Gathering》”,還寫有一本“《大觀茶論 Da Guan Tea Treaties》”。

9.41.煮茶boiling tea
9.42.點茶whisking tea
9.43.泡茶brewing tea

中國歷代茶的飲用主流是這樣演變的:唐代的“煮茶boiling tea”、宋代的“點茶whisking tea”、明代以後的“泡茶brewing tea”。

9.44.砧椎crushing block
9.46.炭筥charcoal basket
9.47.炭檛charcoal mallet
9.48.火筴 fire chopsticks
9.50.交床cauldron stand
9.51.夾tea tongs
9.52.紙囊paper wallet
9.53.碾crushing roller
9.54.羅合sieve box
9.55.則tea holder
9.56.水方water vessel
9.57.漉水囊water filter bag
9.58.瓢gourd scooper
9.59.竹夾bamboo tongs
9.60.鹺簋salt container
9.61.熟盂boiled water vessel
9.63.畚bowl basket
9.65.滌方water basin
9.66.滓方spent tea basin
9.67.巾tea cloth
9.68.具列utensil table
9.69.都籃utensil basket

以上是陸羽《茶經Tea Classic》上所介紹的茶器名稱。
9.70.茶屋tea room
9.71.茶室tea house
9.72.茶庭tea garden
9.73.泡茶席tea setting
9.74.流理間 preparation room
9.75.茶席tea ceremony site

專用於“茶道表達與活動進行”的場所稱為“茶屋tea room”,包括房子部分的“茶室tea house”與戶外的“茶庭tea garden”。茶室內又有供作泡茶、飲茶的“泡茶席tea setting”與供作後勤的“流理間preparation room”。整個茶事進行的地方也可以稱作“茶席tea ceremony site”。

9.76.品茗環境tea ambience
9.77.茶會tea gathering
9.78.插花Floral Arrangement
9.79.香道Incense Arts
9.80.掛畫Hanging Arts

“品茗環境tea ambience”是舉辦“茶會tea gathering”的空間,經常會提到“插花Floral Arranging”、“香道Incense Lore”與“掛畫Hanging Arts”。

9.81.依依不捨unwilling to part
9.82.一期一會once in a lifetime
每次“茶會tea gathering”結束的時候,總會讓人覺得“依依不捨unwilling to part”,更讓人深刻體會到“一期一會once in a lifetime”的意義。

9.83.泡茶師Tea Master
9.84.泡茶師檢定考試Tea Master Certification Exam

泡茶師是對泡茶技藝的肯定,陸羽茶藝中心等單位都會定期舉辦“泡茶師檢定考試Tea Master Certification Exam”

第 十 章


Chapter Ten
Japanese,Korean,and British Tea Culture

一.日本茶文化 Japanese Tea Culture

10.1.榮西禪師Eisai Chan-Master
10.2.《喫茶養生記》Treatise on Tea Drinking for Health

“榮西禪師Eisai Chan-Master”于中國的宋代將茶樹與飲茶法帶回日本,並於晚年寫了“《喫茶養生記Treatise on Tea Drinking for Health》”。

10.3.村田珠光Murata Shuko
10.4.武野紹鷗Takeno Joo
10.5.千利休Sen no Rikyu
10.6.《南方錄》Southern Wood Register
10.7.茶之书The Book of Tea

榮西禪師等人將茶帶回日本後,經過“村田珠光Murata Shuko”、“武野紹鷗Takeno Joo”、“千利休Sen no Rikyu”等歷代茶人的努力,建構了具有日本文化特色的日本茶道。這個系統是沿襲末茶而來的“抹茶道 powder tea ceremony”。千利休的弟子還整理了他的有关茶道内容,寫成了“《南方錄Southern Wood Register》”一书。1906年岡倉天心以英文出版了“《茶之書》The Bookos Tea”让世人更加瞭解东方的茶文化。

10.9.煎茶道leaf tea ceremony
10.10.抹茶道 powder tea ceremony

泡茶方法在中國明代演變成浸泡的方式,這種方式也傳到了日本,且形成所謂之“煎茶道leaf tea ceremony”,日本將“賣茶翁Baisao”奉為煎茶道的鼻祖。

10.11.承蒙賜茶Thank you for offering this tea.
10.12.請恕先用Excuse me, I will have a drink

日本茶道在喝茶之前都會向主人說:“承蒙賜茶Thank you for offering this tea.”再向次一位客人說:“請恕先用Excuse me, I will have a drink”。

10.13.蒙賜點心Thank you for offering snacks.
10.14.茶食是誰做的呀?非常好吃Who made these snacks?They are delicions

吃茶食前,會向主人說:“蒙賜點心Thank you for offering snacks.”,吃過後會向主人表示:“茶食是誰做的呀?非常好吃Who made these snacks? They are delicious”。

10.16.這服茶如何?How is the bowl of tea?
10.17.再一服如何?How about another bowl?
茶席的主人稱為“亭主host”,招待一巡的茶後,問客人:“這服茶如何?How is the bowl of tea?”,“再一服如何?How about another bowl?”。

10.18.薄茶thin tea
10.19.濃茶thick tea

抹茶分為“薄茶thin tea”與“濃茶thick tea”。薄茶泡成一般茶湯的濃度,一人一碗飲用,濃茶泡得很濃稠,數人共飲一碗。

10.20.抹茶單碗點茶法individual bowl whisk method
10.21.抹茶小杯點茶法whisk method with small cups(Matcha small cups whisk method)

抹茶可以一碗一碗的喝,稱為“抹茶單碗點茶法 powder tea bowl whisk method”,也可以先打成一碗,再分倒入小杯飲用,這種方式就稱為“抹茶小杯點茶法 whisk method with small cups”。

10.22.日本茶道Japanese Tea Ceremony
10.23.湯瓶hot water pitcher
10.24.茶筅tea whisk
10.25.茶筅座whisk holder
10.26.茶巾tea towel
10.27.棚shelf stand
10.28.茶入thick tea caddy
10.29.棗thin tea caddy
10.30.茶碗tea bowl
10.31.茶杓tea scoop
10.32.流理間preparation room
10.34.掛軸hanging scroll
10.35.花入flower vase
10.36.(地)爐sunken hearth
10.38.涼爐tall stove
10.39.茶磨tea mill
10.40.茶羅tea sieve
10.41.棕刷palm brush
10.42.盞托bowl stand
10.43.茶盞tea bowl

以上是“日本茶道Japanese Tea Ceremony”上使用的一些茶具。平時說日本茶道都是指“抹茶道”而言。

10.44.四規The Four Principles
10.45.和、敬、清、寂harmony,respect,purity,and tranquility

日本茶道有所謂的“四規The Four Principles”,即茶道精神之所在:“和、敬、清、寂harmony, respect,purity, and tranquility”。

10.46.空寂茶道Quiet and Desolate Teaism
10.47.草庵茶法Thatch Hut Tea Manner
10.48.四疊半茶室Four and a Half Tatami Tea Room

日本茶道具有濃厚“空寂茶道Quiet and Desolate Teaism”的精神,喜歡構築草庵作為茶道的道場而稱為“草庵茶法Thatch Hut Tea Manner”,空間不大而稱“四疊半茶室Four and a Half Tatami Tea Room”,強調“不足Imperfect”之美。
10.50.日本茶道的七則Seven Rules of Japanese Tea Ceremony
10.51.茶要泡得好喝Make the tea delicious
10.52.炭要放得使水燒得好Put charcoal to make water boil well
10.53.花要像長在原野裏Arrange the flowers as though they were in the field.
10.54.夏天使涼冬天使暖Provide warmth in the winter and coolness in the summer
10.55.守時早到Early and on time
10.56.未雨綢繆Be prepared for rain
10.57.為他人設想Be considerate for others always

日本茶道要求茶人們要遵守“日本茶道的七則Seven Rules of Japanese Tea Ceremony”,即上述的這七項。

10.58.宗匠茶mastery tea
10.59.文人茶literati tea

日本“煎茶道leaf tea ceremony”有強調泡茶基本功的所謂“宗匠茶mastery tea”,也有強調文人作風的所謂“文人茶literati tea”。

10.60.香合incense box
10.62.蓋置lid rest
10.63.水指water jar
10.65.建水tea basin
10.66.煮水壺boiling kettle
10.67.水注water vessel
10.68.茶則tea holder
10.71.滓盂spent tea basin
10.72.茶箸tea chopsticks
10.73.爐屏stove screen
10.74.果子器snack container

以上是一些日本“煎茶道leaf tea ceremony”常用到的器具。

10.75.懷紙pocket paper
10.76.帛紗silk cloth
10.77.古帛紗classical silk cloth
10.78.扇子folding fan
10.79.帛紗夾silk cloth wallet

以上是參加“日本茶道Japanese Tea Ceremony”的客人所必須自備的茶道用具。

10.80.暫坐temporary seating
10.81.定坐proper seating

進入茶席拜見床龕與風爐後,為了不妨礙他人的拜見,暫時坐在臨時性的位子上,稱為“暫坐temporary seating”,客人拜見完畢,才坐到應該就坐的位子,稱為“定坐proper seating”。

10.82.正客main guest
10.83.往上座的方向face main guest
10.84.往下座的方向face next guest

“正客main guest”是本次茶會最主要的客人,他定坐後,將扇子橫放身後,扇柄“往上座的方向face main guest”,次客以下的扇柄則是“往下座的方向face next guest”。

10.85.榻榻米的邊緣tatami border
10.86.點前疊的緣外outside the preparation tatami border

在茶席上走動是不可以踏到“榻榻米的邊緣tatami border”的。主人點好茶,將茶端到點茶所在榻榻米的緣外,這個地方稱為“點前疊的緣外outside the preparation tatami border”。

10.87.露地pass garden
10.88.手水缽hand basin

“露地pass garden”就是茶庭,會設有“手水缽hand basin”供客人洗手淨心,然後才進入到茶席內。

10.89.待合處standby site
10.90.草鞋straw sandals

“待合處standby site”是客人互相等待會合的地方,主人邀請入席時,從主客依次換穿“草鞋straw sandals”走入露地,如果下雨、下雪,可穿“露地木屐clogs”。

10.92.飛石stepping stones
10.93.關守石guide stone

進入茶庭,要踏著“飛石stepping stones”前進,不可踐踏飛石之外的苔蘚和土地,遇到“關守石guide stone”,這是綁著蕨繩的小石頭,表示非從此路,應從另端進入茶席。

10.94.懷石料理Breast-Stone Cuisine
10.95.主茶食main snack
10.96.副茶食minor snack

“懷石料理Breast-Stone Cuisine”是與茶會結合的正餐,以精簡為原則。茶食則是喝茶間搭配的點心,以點心缽或蒸籠盛放米糕、包子之類者稱為“主茶食main snack”,以盤子端出糖果、餅乾、魚幹之類者稱為“副茶食minor snack”。

10.97.拜見茶碗admire tea bowl
10.98.茶師tea practitioner
10.99.煉茶的功夫tea whisking skills
10.100.茶銘tea description

客人喝過茶,可以“拜見茶碗admire tea bowl”,還可以從茶碗留下的茶跡欣賞“茶師tea practitioner” “煉茶的功夫tea whisking skills”。也可以問問有關茶的描述,即所謂之“茶銘tea description”。

10.101.樂茶碗Raku tea bowl

“樂茶碗Raku tea bowl”是日本樂家代代所燒制的茶碗。其陶瓷器也統稱為樂燒。

10.102.過茶筅rinse the whisk

茶席上,點茶之前,先將茶筅過一下熱水的過程稱為“過茶筅rinse the whisk”,一方面是點茶時筅穗較不易斷裂,二方面利用這個時候檢查一下茶筅的完整度。

10.103.躙口bow entrance
10.104.廣間茶室large tea room

草庵式茶席的矮小入口稱為“躙口bow entrance”,曲膝彎腰進入,提醒人們謙遜之心。“廣間茶室large tea room”不設躙口,直接由拉門進入。



10.107.豐臣秀吉Toyotomi Hideyoshi
10.108.黃金茶屋Golden Tearoom
10.109.北野之森Kitano Forest
10.110.北野大茶會Kitano Great Tea Gathering

結束日本戦國時代的“豐臣秀吉Toyotoni Hideyoshi”除擁有“黃金茶屋Golden Tearoom”外,更與千利休等人共同在京都“北野之森Kitano Forest”舉辦了茶道史上有名的“北野大茶會Kitano Great Tea Gathering”。

10.111.三千家Three Sen Houses

“三千家Three Sen Houses”是千利休的後代建立的茶道三大流派,即“裏千家Urasenke”、“表千家Omotesenke”與“武者小路千家Mushanokojisenke”。

10.115.鬥茶tea competition

“鬥茶tea competition”是緣於中國宋朝的一種點茶比賽,傳到日本演變成一種識茶賭博,1336年被頒令禁止。

10.116.藤原定家Fujiwara no Teika
Gazing long and long;
the blossoms and crimson leaves disappear.
A thatch hut out of the seaside;
in the autumn′s twilight appears.

日本茶道空寂精神的奠基人物之一武野紹鷗把“藤原定家Fujiwara no Teika”的這一首詩用來表現“空寂”的境界。

10.118.藤原家隆Fujiwara no Letaka
To the one who waits for the blossoms of spring;
Show him the grasses pushing up among the snowy hills!

將“空寂”精神表現得很具體的千利休,常把“藤原家隆Fujiwara no Letaka”的這首詩作為生活的信條。

二.韓國茶文化 Korean Tea Culture
10.119.三國時代 The Three Kingdoms Period
10.123.《三國史記》Historical Records of the Three Kingdoms
10.124.《三國遺事》Memorabilia of the Three Kingdoms
10.125.高句麗古塚 Goguryeo Furutsuka
10.126.行茶圖 Tea Manner Painting

“三國時代The Three Kingdoms Period”就是“新羅Silla”(-57~-935)、“高句麗Goguryeo”(-37~-668)與“百濟Baekje”(-18~-660),飲茶在這個時期已傳入韓國,流行於僧侣、貴族之間。史書“《三國史記Historical Records of the Three Kingdoms》”、“《三國遺事Memorabilia of the Three Kingdom》”都有記載,1940年出土的遺址“高句麗古塚 Goguryeo Furutsuka”之壁畫“行茶圖 Tea Manner Painting”也可以佐證。

10.127.花郎徒Hwarang Party

韓國新羅時代的“花郎徒Hwarang Party”們經常巡禮山川,他們修練身心是以唱鄉歌和修習飲茶禮儀為主要功課。

10.128.忠談禪師獻茶Zhong Tan Chan Master offers tea

“忠談禪師獻茶Zhong Tan Chan Master offers ta”是韓國茶史上向國王獻茶的第一個紀錄,典出《三國遺事•忠談師》。

10.129.高麗時代 Goryeo Kingdom

“高麗時代 Goryeo Kingdom”(936~1392)是韓國飲茶的全盛時期,有廣大的茶園,衆多的名茶,精美的高麗青瓷,完備的行茶禮法。

10.130.朝鮮Joseon Dynasty
10.131.草衣禪師Cho-Ui Chan-Master
10.132.大興寺Daeheung Temple
10.133.一枝庵Ichishian living quarters
10.134.《茶神傳》The Biography of Tea
10.135.《東茶頌》In Praise of Oriental Tea
10.136.丁若鏞Jeong Yayong
10.137.金正喜Kim Jeonghui(秋史Chusa)

韓國“朝鮮Joseon Dynasty”時代的“草衣禪師Cho-Ui Chan-Master”(1786~1866),在“大興寺Daeheung Temple”的“一枝庵Ichishian living quarters”研究茶道,並著述了“《茶神傳The Biography of Tea》”與“《東茶頌In Praise of Oriental Tea》”等韓國重要的茶書,與“丁若鏞Jeong Yayong”(1762~1836)、“金正喜Kim Jeonghui”(號“秋史”,1786~1856),被視為近代韓國茶道復興的重要人物。

三.英國茶文化 British Tea Culture

10.138.英國東印度公司English East India Company (England,1600~1834)


10.139.大吉嶺茶 Darjeeling Tea
10.140.伯爵茶 Earl Grey Tea
10.141.仕女伯爵Lady Grey
10.142.錫蘭茶Ceylon Tea
10.143.阿薩姆茶 Assam Tea
10.144.英國早餐茶English Breakfast Tea

10.145.《茶葉全書》All About Tea

這是1935年在紐約出版的一本60萬字大書,由William H. Ukers編著,所搜資料包羅萬象,乃研究世界茶業歷史很好的參考資料。

10.146.完美的一杯茶a perfect cup of tea
10.147.寢覺茶early morning tea
10.148.早餐茶breakfast tea
10.149.早休茶morning tea break
10.150.午餐茶lunch tea
10.151.午休茶midday tea
10.152.下午茶afternoon tea
10.153.高茶high tea
10.154.餐後茶after dinner tea

“完美的一杯茶a perfect cup of tea”是講究生活品味的英國人所追求的。每天喝茶的時機就有上述那麼多類別。

10.155.泡茶黃金律Tea Brewing Golden Rules
Use of teapot: warm teapot, put in tea leaf, pour boiling water, tea leaf will move up and down.
10.157.茶量正確: 使用茶匙,一匙約2.5~3克,原則上一杯茶一匙,可酌情加減。
Correct amount of tea: use teaspoon, measure 2.5-3 grams, primarily one cup to one spoon, adjust to taste.
10.158.新鮮的水: 新鮮的水含有很多空氣,煮沸後使用,紅茶的味道才能沖泡出來。
Fresh water: fresh water contains a lot of air, boil before use, the flavor of black tea can be steeped out.
Steeping time: after filling with water, put lid on pot, let tea leaf sink into teapot, about 4-5 minutes.

紅茶界有所謂之“泡茶黃金律Tea Brewing Golden Rules”,確實遵守上述這四條黃金律,就可以泡出一杯色澤豔麗、香氣馥鬱、滋味濃厚而好喝的紅茶了。

10.160.茶所tea place
10.163.茶休廳tea lounge
10.164.茶會tea party

“茶所tea place”就是買茶喝茶的地方,包括“茶店teashop”、“茶室tearoom”、“茶休廳tea lounge”等。茶休廳是旅館裏舉辦“茶會tea party”的地方。


10.166.英國茶顧問委員會UK Tea Council
10.167.年度頂尖茶所Annual Top Tea Place
10.168.美國茶業委員會The Tea Council of the USA

“英國茶顧問委員會UK Tea Council”曾每年選出英國最佳飲茶場所並加以表揚,頒給“年度頂尖茶所Annual Top Tea Place”的獎牌。美國類似的組織叫“美國茶業委員會The Tea Council of the USA”。

10.169.葡萄牙公主凱薩琳Princess Catherine of Portugal

10.170.服裝改革會The Dress Reform Society
10.171.茶服tea dress

1880年代,英國“服裝改革會The Dress Reform Society”提倡一種柔軟、不緊、舒適的“茶服tea dress”,使女性可以盡興地吃東西與飲茶,而仍能保持文雅、優美和時髦的形象。

10.172. 格萊斯東William Ewart Gladstone (England, 1809~1898)

10.173. 當你寒冷時,茶會溫暖你;
If you are cold, tea will warm you;
if you are too heated, it will cool you;
if you are depressed, it will cheer you;
if you are excited, it will calm you.

英國政治家“格萊斯東William Ewart Gladstone (England, 1809~1898)”是著名飲茶家, 留下上述的一段詩句。

10.174.茶壺保溫套tea cosy (American: cozy)

“茶壺保溫套tea cosy”用來罩住茶壺,免得茶湯涼得太快。

10.175.波士頓茶葉事件The Boston Tea Party


10.176.快速帆船clipper ship
10.177.飆船大賽Tea Clipper Races

為了快速載運中國茶葉,1845年美國建造了第一艘“快速帆船clipper ship”後,很快興起了美英之間的“飆船大賽Tea Clipper Races”。



Chapter Eleven
Tea Poetry and Health

一.茶詩 Poetry

11.1. 六羨歌 陸羽 (唐. 733~804)

Six Admirations
I do not thirst for gold cups.
Nor thirst for white jade bowls.
Nor for morning thirst of high office.
Nor for evening thirst of high rank.
What I long and long for is the water flowing into Jingling.
---Lu, Yu (Tang. 733~804)

11.2. 秘色越窖詩 陸龜蒙 (宋. ~881)
Mystical Color in Yue Kiln
The misty scenery of late autumn appears when the Yue kilns are open,
the thousand peaks have been despoiled of their bright color for the decoration of the bowls.
Let us take them out at midnight to collect the falling dew, or fill up the cups in emulation of Jizhongsan.
---Lu, Guimeng (Song. ~881)

11.3.七碗詩 盧仝 (唐. 790~835)

Lu Tong′s Seven Bowls of Tea
The first bowl moistens my lips and throat;
The second bowl breaks my loneliness;
The third bowl searches my barren entrails but to find
therein some five thousand scrolls;
The fourth bowl raises a slight perspiration
and all life′s inequities pass out through my pores;
The fifth bowl purifies my flesh and bones;
The sixth bowl calls me to the immortals.
The seventh bowl could not be drank, only the breath of the cool wind raises in my sleeves.
Where is Penglai Island, Yuchuanzi wishes to ride on this sweet breeze and go back.
---Lu, Tong (Tang. 790~835)

11.4.寒夜 杜小山 (宋. ~1227)

Cold Night
No wine for callers, but tea is the cold night blessing,
the coals are starting to glow, the water answers by bubbling on the bamboo stove.
The same moon in the window, but it is different just to have the plum blossoms.
---Du, Xiaoshan (Song. ~1227)

11.5.游諸佛舍,一日飲釅茶七盞,戲書勤師壁 蘇軾(宋. 1037~1101)

Around the Temple, Drinking Seven Bowls of Tea, and Writing on the Walls
....Why swallow Emperor Wei’s pill,
when we can drink Lu Tong’s seven bowls of tea.
---Su, Shi (Su, DongPo) (Song. 1037~1101)

11.6.山泉煎茶有懷 白居易 (唐. 772~846)
Reflections on Spring Water and Tea
Scoop cool water, watching the tea boil.
Offering a bowl of tea, to the tea lover without reason.
---Bai, Juyi (Tang. 772 ~ 846)

11.7.飲茶歌誚崔石使君 皎然 (唐.720~800)
A friend from Yueh presented me with San River tea.
For which I chose a golden cauldron to boil the golden pecko.
A snow white bowl with its green bright froth and fragrance.
Was it just like the nectar of the Immortals?
The first bowl washed the cobwebs from my mind, my perceptions turned bright and clear.
A second cleansed my spirit like purifying showers of rain.
A third and I have obtained the Way, what need now for austerities to purge our perplexities. It is of great spirit but unknown by most, worldly people by going in for wine sadly deceive themselves.
Who knows the Way of Tea is really true、 just Danqiu could find it.
---Jiaoran (Tang. 720~800)

11.8.茶的情詩 張錯






Love Poems of Tea

If I, the boiling water,
And you, the tea;
Then your fragrance
Has to depend solely upon my plainness.

Let your dryness inside me
Softly uncoil and stretch;
Let me dissolve
Imperceptibly, your tension.

I have to be hot, even boiled
Before we consume each other;
We have to hide, see and hold
each other in water
to decide a tea color.

No matter how capriciously
you drift;
Gradually and slowly
O, gently
You will into me submerge--

by that moment
the most bitter tear of yours
will become a best sip
of my fragrance.
---Cheung, Dominic Chang, Ts′o(Los Angeles, California,America)

二.茶與健康Tea and Health


茶中含有“氟fluoride”, 在茶湯中的含量約為1ppm,是很適合防止蛀牙的含量.

11.11.茶多酚tea polyphenols
11.13.自由基free radicals

茶中“兒茶素catechins”是“茶多酚tea polyphenols”的主要成分,含量占幹物重的10~30﹪,占茶水可溶物的40~50﹪,為茶湯中的主要保健物質,具有“抗氧化antioxidant”與清除體內“自由基free radicals”的功用。






茶中含有類胡蘿蔔素、維生素E、維生素B群與維生素 C等,前二項不溶于水,必須以擂茶、點茶的方式飲用才能獲得。

11.17. E G C G (epigallocatechin gallate)
11.18.降低血脂reduce blood fat.
11.19.預防高血壓prevent high blood pressure

茶中的“E G C G兒茶素”有“降低血脂reduce blood fat”的功效,茶中的鉀可促進血鈉的排除,可“預防高血壓prevent high blood pressure”。

11.20.降血糖reduce blood sugar

茶中的E G C G兒茶素及雜鏈多糖類化合物,都具有明顯的降血糖功能,能預防糖尿病。



11.22.抗癌resist cancer
茶中兒茶素類化合物不但對癌細胞具有抑制引發的作用,而且具有抑制促發的作用,這些現象證明了茶的“抗癌resist cancer”效用。

11.23.陶冶心性cultivate one's character

心態的安祥與愉悅是促進健康很重要的因素,喝茶,不論是獨自品飲還是大家一起舉辦茶會,都可以“陶冶心性cultivate one's character”,達到心態安祥與愉悅的境界。

Chapter Twelve
Tea Studies Synthesis

一.茶道內涵圖解Tea Lore Connotation Diagram

12.1.茶道內涵Tea Lore Connotation
12.2.第1圈:茶道載體1st Circle:Tea Lore Medium

00.0.茶湯Tea Liquid
00.0.泡茶Tea Brewing
00.0.茶器Tea Utensils
12.4.奉茶Tea Serving
00.0.品飲Tea Savoring
12.5.茶食Tea Cuisine
12.7.第2圈:茶道平臺2nd Circle: Tea Lore Platform
12.8.茶法Brewing Methodology
12.9.茶會Tea Functions
12.10.第3圈:茶道內涵3rd Circle :Tea Lore Connotation
12.11.美感Beauty Notion
12.12.藝術The Arts
12.15.第4圈:茶道特質4th Circle :Tea Lore Characteristics
12.16.審美Beauty Appreciation
12.18.空寂Quiet and Desolate
12.19.精儉Simple and Exquisite
12.25.第5圈:茶道素養5th Circle :Tea Lore Accomplishments
12.34.哲學、宗教 Philosophy, Religion
12.40.香道 Incense Lore
12.42.花道Flower Arrangement
12.43.識茶Tea Recognizing
12.44.制茶Tea Making

二.茶葉沖泡與茶湯內涵Tea Infusion and Tea Liquid Connotation Diagram

12.45.第1圈:茶湯色香味的內涵 1st Circle: Tea liquid Color-Scent-Taste Connotation
00.00.茶 湯 Tea Liquid
12.46.色相 Hue
12.47.明度 Brightness
12.50.香型 Scent Type
12.51.強度 Strength Degree
12.52.持續度 Flavor Endurance
12.53.香性 Scent Character
00.00.茶性 Tea Character
12.54.調和度 Harmonious Degree
00.00.稠度 Richness
00.00.強度 Strength
12.55.第2圈:泡茶五要素5-Keys of Brewing
00.00.水溫 Temperature
00.00.茶水比例Tea to Water Ratio
12.56.沖泡器Tea Brewing Vessel
12.57.水質 Water Quality
12.58.第3圈:影響茶葉浸泡時間的因素 Factors Affecting Tea Steeping Time
Water substances soluble speed(one of the Inner Factors)
00.00.茶葉完整度 Tea Leaf Integrity Degree
00.00.枝葉連理情形 Stem and Leaf Joint Condition
00.00.葉形大小 Leaf Shape Size
00.00.芽型或葉型Tip Type or Leaf Type
00.00.茶青成熟度Tea Harvest Maturity Degree
00.00.外形緊結度Tea Shape Tightness
00.00.條索緊結度Leaf Twist-Tightness
00.00.發酵程度Fermentation Degree
00.00.萎凋程度 Withering Degree
00.00.揉撚程度 Rolling Degree
00.00.焙火程度Roasting Degree
12.60.陳放年份 Storing Time
12.61.渥堆情形 Piling Condition
00.00.蟲咬情形 Insect Bitten Condition
12.62.水可溶物多寡(內在因素 之二)
Water substances amount(another Inner Factors)
00.00.焙火程度Roasting Degree
00.00.發酵程度 Fermentation Degree
12.63.茶青品質Fresh Leaf Quality
12.64.外在因素Outer Factors
00.00.茶量 Tea Amount
12.65.水質 Water Quality
12.66.沖泡器材質Brew Vessel Material
00.00.倒幹程度 Drain Drying Degree
00.00.每泡間隔時間 Every Brew Interim Time
12.67.前一泡的濃度Previous Brew Strength

三.茶法與茶會類型圖解Tea Methodology and Tea Functions Diagram

00.00.第1圈:十大泡茶法1st Circle: The Ten Tea Methods
12.68.泡茶法Tea Brewing Methodology
00.00.小壺茶法Small Pot Tea Method
00.00.蓋碗茶法Cover Bowl Tea Method
00.00.大桶茶法Large Capacity Tea Method
00.00.濃縮茶法Concentrated Tea Method
00.00.含葉茶法Nonstrained Tea Method
00.00.旅行茶法Travel Tea Method
00.00.抹茶法Whisking Tea Method
00.00.煮茶法Boiling Tea Method
00.00.冷泡茶法Cold Tea Method
00.00.泡沫茶法Foam Tea Method

2nd and 3rd Circle: Classified by the Tea Function Style, and Examples
12.70.茶會類型 Tea Function Type
12.71.茶席式 Tea Site Style
12.72.桌上茶席 Table Tea Site
12.73.席地茶席 Ground Tea Site
12.74.榻榻米茶席Tatami Tea Site
12.75.宴會式 Banquet Tea Style
12.76.茶席個別供茶式 Tea Site Supplying Tea Individually
12.77.統一供茶式 Supplying Tea Centralized
12.78.流觴式Floating Cup Style
12.79.曲水茶宴 Winding Creek Tea Gathering
12.80.環列式 Circle Tea Style
00.00.無我茶會Wu-Wo Tea Ceremony
12.81.禮儀式Etiquette Style
12.82.四序茶會Perennial Tea Ceremony
12.83.獻茶禮Offer Tea Ritual
12.84.寺院茶禮 Temple Tea Ceremony

4th Circle: Classified by the Tea Function Purpose
12.86.為茶道 For Teaism
12.87.為慶祝 For Celebrating
12.88.為追思 For Remembrance
12.89.為遊興 For Leisure
12.90.為社交 For Socializing
12.91.為儀軌For Rites

四.無我茶會要義圖解Wu-Wo Tea Ceremony Connotation Diagram

12.92.第1圈:茶會隊形 1st Circle: Tea Function Formation
12.93.圍成圈圈泡茶gather to form circle to brew tea

00.00.第2圈:特殊做法 2nd Circle: The special way
00.00.抽籤決定座次Drawing Lots for Seating
00.00.茶具自備泡法不拘prepare tea ware and not confined to any brewing manner
00.00.單邊奉茶same direction tea serving
00.00.茶葉自備種類不拘 Prepare tea leaf of any kind
00.00.品飲自己與別人的茶湯 Drink one's own and others tea liquid
00.00.依公告事項行事無需指揮 Follow Public Announcement no need for a director
00.00.泡茶席間不語Remain silent during brewing

00.00.第3圈:七大精神 3rd Circle: The Seven Principles
00.00.無尊卑之分No matter to social status
00.00.無流派與地域之分No distinction of school or region
00.00.無報償之心No reward is expected
00.00.無好惡之心No bias
00.00.求精進之心Concentrate and improve
00.00.遵守公共約定Everyone follows the public announcement
00.00.體現群體律動之美Express group rhythm and harmony

12.94.第4圈:衍生意義 4th Circle: Derivative Significance
00.00.隨遇而安Feel at ease under all circumstances
12.95.信任 Trust
00.00.無所為而為Actions without intentions
12.96.不排斥新事物Don't rule out new things
12.98.清和 Pure and peace
00.00.培養默契cultivate tacit understanding

12.99.第5圈:積極作為 5th Circle: Positive Action
12.100.〝茶席設置〞、〝與會心情〞以精簡為原則 "Tea Site Setup", "Participation Mood" use simple and exquisite principles
12.101.將選定的茶席與泡法做得是自己當時的最好Tea site and tea method once selected do it best
12.102.有人圍觀時行〝對外奉茶〞If there are spectators have "spectator serving"
12.103.攜帶樂與大家分享的茶具與茶葉 Bring tea ware and tea that others will enjoy
12.104.茶會名稱不涉廣告 Tea function name can not involve advertising
12.105.會後不交換茶具以為紀念 After tea function exchanging tea ware is not expectable
12.106.不要因自己的表現令與會者感到不悅 Do not let participants become displeased because of one's behavior
12.107.理解無中生有、有無交替的意義 Comprehending 'being' comes from 'emptiness', and being and emptiness is circulation

五.茶文化與茶學圖解Tea Culture and Tea Studies Diagram

六.茶文化與茶學圖解Tea Culture and Tea Studies Diagram

12.108.茶文化 Tea Culture
12.109.茶學 Tea Studies

12.110.茶道Tea Lore
12.111.茶道載體Tea Lore Medium
12.112.茶道平臺 Tea Platform
12.113.茶道內涵Tea Lore Connotation
12.114.茶道特質Tea Lore Characteristics
12.115.茶道素養Tea Lore Accomplishments

12.116.茶歷史Tea History
12.117.產業史Industrial History
12.118.生活史Life History
12.119.茶藝史Tea Arts History
12.120.思想史Ideology History

12.121.茶生活 Tea and Life
12.122.民生 Life
12.123.禮俗 Customs
12.124.醫藥 Medicine

12.125.茶推廣 Tea Promotion
12.126.語文 Languages
12.127.廣告 Advertising
12.128.宣傳 Publicity

12.130.茶產業Tea Industry
12.133.行銷 Marketing
12.134.政經 Politics
12.135.茶文化乃偏重內涵而言 Tea Culture emphasizes its connotation
12.136.茶學乃偏重課程而言Tea Studies emphasizes learning

《中英文茶学术语》 ( 陆羽茶艺股份有限公司,2010,ISBN978-957-9690-06-5)
著作人:蔡榮章 /  Steven R. Jones

Chinese-English Tea Studies Terminology
(2010, ISBN978-957-9690-06-5)
Lu-Yu Tea Culture Institute Publications Department
Authors: Tsai, Rong-Tsang and Steven R. Jones

=                                  =                 (2009)            =                              =  

蔡荣章*琼斯史迪芬 编译,
《中英文"茶學術語"》( 天福茶學院,2009,控制號:zyk0030030 )
Tsai, Rong-Tsang and Steven R. Jones, Translators and Editors;
“Chinese-English Tea Studies Terminology”, (2009), Tenfu Tea College, Ctrl No: zyk0030030