Tea performing arts, tea terminology and translation, promote tea studies and innovations. *Contact ,icetea8@gmail.com, Trad. and Simp. Chinese used. Blog since 6/23/2005
Name: Steven R. Jones; Link: http://teaarts.blogspot.com/
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名字:瓊斯史迪芬Steven R. Jones, 網址: http://teaarts.blogspot.com/

4/29/2010

茶經

茶經
陸羽撰

一之源
茶者,南方之嘉木也,一尺二尺,乃至數十尺。其巴山峽川有兩人合抱者
,伐而掇之,其樹如瓜蘆,葉如梔子,花如白薔薇,實如栟櫚,葉如丁香
,根如胡桃。其字或從草,或從木,或草木並。其名一曰茶,二曰檟,三
曰<艸設>,四曰茗,五曰荈。其地:上者生爛石,中者生櫟壤,下者生黃
土。凡藝而不實,植而罕茂,法如種瓜,三歲可采。野者上,園者次;陽
崖陰林紫者上,綠者次;筍者上,牙者次;葉卷上,葉舒次。陰山坡穀者
不堪采掇,性凝滯,結瘕疾。茶之用,味至寒,飲最宜精行儉德之人,若
熱渴、凝悶、腦疼、目澀、四支煩、百節不舒,聊四五啜,與醍醐、甘露
抗衡也。采不時,造不精,雜以卉,莽飲之成疾,茶累也。亦猶人參,上
者生上黨,中者生百濟、新羅,下者生高麗。有生澤州、易州、幽州、檀
州者,藥無效,況非此者!設服薺<艸尼>,使六疾不瘳。知人參累,則茶
累盡矣。
二之具
,一曰籃,一曰籠,一曰筥。以竹織之,受五升,或一鬥、二鬥、三鬥者
,茶人負以采茶也。無用<穴犮>者,釜用唇口者。甑,或木或瓦,匪腰而
泥,籃以簞之,篾以系之。始其蒸也,入乎簞,既其熟也,出乎簞。釜涸
注於甑中,又以穀木枝三亞者制之,散所蒸牙筍並葉,畏流其膏。杵臼,
一曰碓,惟琤峈怢峞C規,一曰模,一曰棬。以鐵制之,或圓或方或花。
承,一曰台,一曰砧。以石之,不然以槐、桑木半埋地中,遣無所搖動。
簷,一曰衣。以油絹或雨衫單服敗者之,以簷置承上,又以規置簷上,以
造茶也。茶成,舉而易之。芘莉,一曰羸子,一曰<}旁>筤。以二小竹長
三赤,軀二赤五寸,柄五寸,以篾織,方眼如圃,人土羅闊二赤,以列茶
也。棨,一曰錐刀,柄以堅木之,用穿茶也。撲,一曰鞭。以竹之,穿茶
以解茶也。焙,鑿地深二尺,闊二尺五寸,長一丈,上作短牆,高二尺,
泥之。貫,削竹之,長二尺五寸,以貫茶焙之。棚,一曰棧,以木構於焙
上,編木兩層,高一尺,以焙茶也。茶之半幹升下棚,全幹升上棚。穿,
江東淮南剖竹之,巴川峽山紉谷皮之。江東以一斤上穿,半斤中穿,四兩
五兩小穿。峽中以一百二十斤上,八十斤中穿,五十斤小穿。字舊作釵釧
之“釧”,字或作貫串,今則不然。如磨、扇、彈、鑽、縫五字,文以平
聲書之,義以去聲呼之,其字以穿名之。育,以木制之,以竹編之,以紙
糊之,中有隔,上有覆,下有床,傍有門,掩一扇,中置一器,貯煻煨火
,令然,江南梅雨時焚之以火。

三之造
凡采茶,在二月三月四月之間。茶之筍者生爛石沃土,長四五寸,若薇蕨
始抽,淩露采焉。茶之牙者,發于叢薄之上,有三枝四枝五枝者,選其中
枝穎拔者采焉,其日有雨不采,晴有雲不采。晴采之,蒸之,搗之,拍之
,焙之,穿之,封之,茶之幹矣。茶有千萬狀,鹵莽而言,如胡人靴者蹙
縮然,犎牛臆者廉簷然,浮雲出山者輪菌然,輕拂水者涵澹然。有如陶家
之子羅,膏土以水澄泚之。又如新治地者,遇暴雨流潦之所經,此皆茶之
精腴。有如竹籜者,枝幹堅實,艱於蒸搗,故其形<}麗>簁然;有如霜荷
者,至葉凋,沮易其狀貌,故厥狀委萃然,此皆茶之瘠老者也。自采至於
封七經目,自胡靴至於霜荷八等,或以光黑平正,言嘉者,斯鑒之下也;
以皺黃坳垤言佳者;鑒之次也。若皆言嘉及皆言不嘉者,鑒之上也。何者
?出膏者光,含膏者皺,宿制者則黑,日成者則黃,蒸壓則平正,縱之則
坳垤,此茶與草木葉一也,茶之否臧,存於口訣。

四之器
風爐:風爐以銅鐵鑄之,如古鼎形,厚三分,緣闊九分,令六分虛中,致
其圬墁,凡三足。古文書二十一字,一足雲“坎上巽下離於中”,一足雲
“體均五行去百疾”,一足雲“聖唐滅胡明年鑄”。其三足之間設三窗,
底一窗,以通漏燼之所,上並古文書六字:一窗之上書“伊公”二字,一
窗之上書“羹陸”二字,一窗之上書“氏茶”二字,所謂“伊公羹陸氏茶
”也。置墆粟憍顙鉹滿A設三格:其一格有翟焉,翟者,火禽也,畫一卦
曰離;其一格有彪焉,彪者,風獸也,畫一卦曰巽;其一格有魚焉,魚者
,水蟲也,畫一卦曰坎。巽主風,離主火,坎主水。風能興火,火能熟水
,故備其三卦焉。其飾以連葩、垂蔓、曲水、方文之類。其爐或鍛鐵之,
或運泥之,其灰承作三足,鐵柈台之。筥:筥以竹織之,高一尺二寸,徑
闊七寸,或用藤作,木楦,如筥形,織之六出,固眼其底,蓋若利篋口鑠
之。炭撾:炭撾以鐵六棱制之,長一尺,銳一豐,中執細頭,系一小展,
以飾撾也。若今之河隴軍人木吾也,或作鎚,或作斧,隨其便也。火筴:
火筴一名箸,若常用者圓直一尺三寸,頂平截,無蔥台勾鎖之屬,以鐵或
熟銅制之。鍑:鍑以生鐵之,今人有業冶者所謂急鐵。其鐵以耕刀之趄煉
而鑄之,內摸土而外摸沙土。滑于內,易其摩滌;沙澀於外,吸其炎焰。
方其耳,以正令也;廣其緣,以務遠也;長其臍,以守中也。臍長則沸中
,沸中則末易揚,末易揚則其味淳也。洪州以瓷之,萊州以石之,瓷與石
皆雅器也,性非堅實,難可持久。用銀之,至潔,但涉於侈麗。雅則雅矣
,潔亦潔矣,若用之琣茖臕k於銀也。交床:交床以十字交之,剜中令虛
,以支鍑也夾:夾以小青竹之,長一尺二寸,令一寸有節,節已上剖之,
以炙茶也。彼竹之筱津潤於火,假其香潔以益茶味,恐非林谷間莫之致。
或用精鐵熟銅之類,取其久也。紙囊:紙囊以剡藤紙白厚者夾縫之,以貯
所炙茶,使不泄其香也。碾:碾以橘木之,次以梨、桑、桐柘臼,內圓而
外方。內圓備於運行也,外方制其傾危也。內容墮而外無餘木,墮形如車
輪,不輻而軸焉,長九寸,闊一寸七分,墮徑三寸八分,中厚一寸,邊厚
半寸,軸中方而執圓,其拂末以鳥羽制之。羅合:羅末以合蓋貯之,以則
置合中,用巨竹剖而屈之,以紗絹衣之,其合以竹節之,或屈杉以漆之。
高三寸,蓋一寸,底二寸,口徑四寸。則:則以海貝蠣蛤之屬,或以銅鐵
竹匕策之類。則者,量也,准也,度也。凡煮水一升,用末方寸匕。若好
薄者減之,嗜濃者增之,故雲則也。水方:水方以椆木、槐、楸、梓等合
之,其堥疇~縫漆之,受一鬥。
漉水囊:漉水囊若常用者,其格以生銅鑄之,以備水濕,無有苔穢腥澀。
意以熟銅苔穢、鐵腥澀也。林棲穀隱者或用之竹木,木與竹非持久涉遠之
具,故用之生銅。其囊織青竹以卷之,裁碧縑以縫之,紐翠鈿以綴之,又
作綠油囊以貯之,圓徑五寸,柄一寸五分。
瓢:瓢一曰犧杓,剖瓠之,或刊木之。晉舍人杜毓《荈賦》雲:“酌之以
匏。”匏,瓢也,口闊脛薄柄短。永嘉中,餘姚人虞洪入瀑布山采茗,遇
一道士雲:“吾丹丘子,祈子他日甌犧之餘乞相遺也。”犧,木杓也,今
常用以梨木之。
竹筴:竹筴或以桃、柳、蒲、葵木之,或以柿心木之,長一尺,銀裹兩頭

鹺簋:鹺簋以瓷之,圓徑四寸。若合形,或瓶或罍,貯鹽花也。其揭竹制
,長四寸一分,闊九分。揭,策也。
熟盂:熟盂以貯熟水,或瓷或沙,受二升。
碗:碗,越州上,鼎州次,婺州次,嶽州次,壽州、洪州次。或者以邢州
處越州上,殊不然。若邢瓷類銀,越瓷類玉,邢不如越一也;若邢瓷類雪
,則越瓷類冰,邢不如越二也;邢瓷白而茶色丹,越瓷青而茶色綠,邢不
如越三也。晉·杜毓《荈賦》所謂器擇陶揀,出自東甌。甌,越也。甌,
越州上口唇不卷,底卷而淺,受半升已下。越州瓷、嶽瓷皆青,青則益茶
,茶作白紅之色。邢州瓷白,茶色紅;壽州瓷黃,茶色紫;洪州瓷褐,
茶色黑:悉不宜茶。
畚:畚以白蒲卷而編之,可貯碗十枚。或用筥,其紙帕,以剡紙夾縫令方
,亦十之也。
劄:劄緝栟櫚皮以茱萸木夾而縛之。或截竹束而管之,若巨筆形。
滌方:滌方以貯滌洗之餘,用楸木合之,制如水方,受八升。
滓方:滓方以集諸滓,制如滌方,處五升。
巾:巾以絁之,長二尺,作二枚,玄用之以潔諸器。
具列:具列或作床,或作架,或純木純竹而制之,或木法竹黃黑可扃而漆
者,長三尺,闊二尺,高六寸,其到者悉斂諸器物,悉以陳列也。
都籃:都籃以悉設諸器而名之。以竹篾內作三角方眼,外以雙篾闊者經之
,以單篾纖者縛之,遞壓雙經作方眼,使玲瓏。高一尺五寸,底闊一尺,
高二寸,長二尺四寸,闊二尺。
五之煮
凡灸茶,慎勿於風燼間灸,輔撐K如鑽,使炎涼不均。持以逼火,屢其翻
正,候炮出培塿狀,蝦蟆背,然後去火五寸,卷而舒則本其始,又灸之。
若火幹者,以氣熟止;日幹者,以柔止。其始若茶之至嫩者,茶罷熱搗葉
爛而牙筍存焉。假以力者,持千鈞杵亦不之爛,如漆科珠,壯士接之不能
駐其指,及就則似無禳骨也。灸之,則其節若倪,倪如嬰兒之臂耳。既而
承熱用紙囊貯之,精華之氣無所散越。候寒末之其火用炭,次用勁薪。其
炭曾經燔灸,膻膩所及,及膏木敗器不用之。古人有勞薪之味,信哉!其
水,用山水上,江水中,井水下。其山水,揀乳泉石地慢流者上,其瀑湧
湍漱勿食之,久食令人有頸疾。又多別流於山谷者,澄浸不泄,自火天至
霜郊以前,或潛龍畜毒於其間,飲者可決之以流其惡,使新泉涓涓然酌之
。其江水,取去人遠者。井取汲多者。其沸如魚目,微有聲一沸,緣邊如
湧泉連珠二沸,騰波鼓浪三沸,已上水老不可食也。初沸則水合量,調之
以鹽味,謂棄其啜餘,無乃■■而鍾其一味乎?第二沸出水一瓢,以竹筴
環激湯心,則量末當中心,而下有頃勢若奔濤,濺沫以所出水止之,而育
其華也。凡酌置諸碗,令沫餑均。沫餑,湯之華也。華之薄者曰沫,厚者
曰餑,細輕者曰花,如棗花漂漂然于環池之上。又如回潭曲渚,青萍之始
生;又如晴天爽朗,有浮雲鱗然。其沫者,若綠錢浮于水渭,又如菊英墮
於鐏俎之中。餑者以滓煮之。及沸則重華累沫,硉f硉f然若積雪耳。《
荈賦》所謂“煥如積雪,燁若春艸敷”,有之。第一煮水沸,而棄其沫之
上,有水膜如黑雲母,飲之則其味不正。其第一者雋永,或留熟以貯之,
以備育華救沸之用。諸第一與第二第三碗,次之第四第五碗,外非渴甚莫
之飲。凡煮水一升,酌分五碗,乘熱連飲之,以重濁凝其下,精英浮其上
。如冷則精英隨氣而竭,飲啜不消亦然矣。茶性儉,不宜廣,則其味黯澹
,且如一滿碗,啜半而味寡,況其廣乎!其色緗也,其馨■也。其味甘也
;不甘而苦,荈也;啜苦咽甘,茶也。

六之飲
翼而飛,毛而走,去而言,此三者俱生於天地間。飲啄以活,飲之時,義
遠矣哉。至若救渴,飲之以漿;蠲憂忿,飲之以酒;蕩昏寐,飲之以茶。
茶之飲,發乎神農氏,間于魯周公,齊有晏嬰,漢有揚雄、司馬相如,吳
有韋曜,晉有劉琨、張載遠、祖納、謝安、左思之徒,皆飲焉。滂時浸俗
,盛于國朝,兩都並荊俞間,以比屋之飲。飲有粗茶、散茶、末茶、餅茶
者,乃斫,乃熬,乃煬,乃舂,貯於瓶缶之中,以湯沃焉,謂之■茶。或
用蔥、薑、棗、橘皮、茱萸、薄荷之等,煮之百沸,或揚令滑,或煮去沫
,斯溝渠間棄水耳,而習俗不已。於戲!天育萬物皆有至妙,人之所工,
但獵淺易。所庇者屋屋精極,所著者衣衣精極,所飽者飲食,食與酒皆精
極之。茶有九難:一曰造,二曰別,三曰器,四曰火,五曰水,六曰炙,
七曰末,八曰煮,九曰飲。陰采夜焙非造也,嚼味嗅香非別也,膻鼎

腥甌非器也,膏薪庖炭非火也,飛湍壅潦非水也,外熟內生非炙也,碧粉
縹塵非末也,操艱攪遽非煮也,夏興冬廢非飲也。夫珍鮮馥烈者,其碗數
三;次之者,碗數五。若坐客數至,五行三碗,至七行五碗。若六人已下
,不約碗數,但闕一人而已,其雋永補所闕人。

七之事
王皇炎帝。神農氏。周魯周公旦。齊相晏嬰。漢仙人丹丘子。黃山君司馬
文。園令相如。楊執戟雄。吳歸命侯。韋太傅弘嗣。晉惠帝。劉司空琨。
琨兄子兗州刺史演。張黃門孟陽。傅司隸鹹。江洗馬充。孫參軍楚。左記
室太沖。陸吳興納。納兄子會稽內史俶。謝冠軍安石。郭弘農璞。桓揚州
溫。杜舍人毓。武康小山寺釋法瑤。沛國夏侯愷。餘姚虞洪。北地傅巽。
丹陽弘君舉。安任育。宣城秦精。敦煌單道開。剡縣陳務妻。廣陵老姥。
河內山謙之。後魏琅琊王肅。宋新安王子鸞。鸞弟豫章王子尚。鮑昭妹令
暉。八公山沙門譚濟。齊世祖武帝。梁·劉廷尉。陶先生弘景。皇朝徐英
公勣。
《神農·食經》:“茶茗久服,令人有力、悅志”。
周公《爾雅》:“檟,苦茶。”《廣雅》雲:“荊巴間采葉作餅,葉老者
餅成,以米膏出之,欲煮茗飲,先灸,令赤色,搗末置瓷器中,以湯澆覆
之,用蔥、薑、橘子芼之,其飲醒酒,令人不眠。”
《晏子春秋》:“嬰相齊景公時,食脫粟之飯,灸三戈五卯茗萊而已。”
司馬相如《凡將篇》:“烏啄桔梗芫華,款冬貝母木蔞,芩草芍藥桂漏蘆
,蜚廉雚菌荈詫,白斂白芷菖蒲,芒消莞椒茱萸。”
《方言》:“蜀西南人謂茶曰葭。”
《吳志·韋曜傳》:“孫皓每饗宴坐席,無不率以七勝限。雖不盡入口,
皆澆灌取盡,曜飲酒不過二升,皓初禮異,密賜茶荈以代酒。”
《晉中興書》:“陸納吳興太守,時衛將軍謝安常欲詣納,納兄子俶怪納
,無所備,不敢問之,乃私蓄十數人饌。安既至,所設唯茶果而已。俶遂
陳盛饌珍羞必具,及安去,納杖俶四十,雲:‘汝既不能光益叔父,柰何
穢吾素業?’”
《晉書》:“桓溫揚州牧,性儉,每燕飲,唯下七奠,拌茶果而已。”
《搜神記》:“夏侯愷因疾死,宗人字苟奴,察見鬼神,見愷來收馬,並
病其妻,著平上幘單衣入,坐生時西壁大床,就人覓茶飲。”
劉琨《與兄子南兗州刺史演書》雲:“前得安州幹薑一斤、桂一斤、黃芩
一斤,皆所須也,吾體中潰悶,常仰真茶,汝可置之。”
傅咸《司隸教》曰:“聞南方有以困蜀嫗作茶粥賣,簾事打破其器具。又
賣餅於市,而禁茶粥以蜀姥何哉!”
《神異記》:“餘姚人虞洪入山采茗,遇一道士牽三青牛,引洪至瀑布山
曰:‘予丹丘子也。聞子善具飲,常思見惠。山中有大茗可以相給,祈子
他日有甌犧之餘,乞相遺也。’因立奠祀。後常令家人入山,獲大茗焉。

左思《嬌女詩》:“吾家有嬌女,皎皎頗白皙。小字紈素,口齒自清曆
。有姊字惠芳,眉目粲如畫。馳騖翔園林,果下皆生摘。貪華風雨中,倏
忽數百適。心茶荈劇,吹噓對鼎曆。”張孟陽《登成都樓詩》雲:“借問
楊子舍,想見長卿廬。程卓累千金,驕侈擬五侯。門有連騎客,翠帶腰吳
。鼎食隨時進,百和妙且殊。披林采秋橘,臨江釣春魚。黑子過龍醢,果
饌逾蟹蝑。芳茶冠六情,溢味播九區。人生苟安樂,茲土聊可娛。”
《傳巽七誨》:“蒲桃、宛柰、齊柿、燕栗、峘陽黃梨、巫山朱橘、南中
茶子、西極石蜜。”
弘君舉食檄:寒溫既畢,應下霜華之茗,三爵而終,應下諸蔗、木瓜、元
李、楊梅、五味橄欖、懸豹、葵羹各一杯。孫楚歌:‘茱萸出芳樹顛,鯉
魚出洛水泉,白鹽出河東,美豉出魯淵。姜桂茶荈出巴蜀,椒橘、木蘭出
高山,蓼蘇出溝渠,精稗出中田。’”華佗《食論》:“苦茶久食益意思
。”
壺居士《食忌》:“苦茶久食羽化。與韭同食,令人體重。”郭璞《爾雅
注》雲:“樹小似梔子,冬生葉,可煮羹飲,今呼早取茶,晚取茗,或一
曰荈,蜀人名之苦茶。”
《世說》:“任瞻字育長,少時有令名。自過江失志,既下飲,問人雲:
‘此茶茗?’覺人有怪色,乃自分明雲:‘向問飲熱冷?’”
《續搜神記·晉武帝》:“宣城人秦精,常入武昌山采茗,遇一毛人長丈
餘,引精至山下,示以叢茗而去。俄而複還,乃探懷中橘以遺精,精怖,
負茗而歸。”晉四王起事,惠帝蒙塵,還洛陽,黃門以瓦盂盛茶上至尊。
《異苑》:“剡縣陳務妻少,與二子寡居,好飲茶茗。以宅中有古塚,每
飲,輒先祀之。二子患之曰:‘古塚何知?徒以勞。’意欲掘去之,母苦
禁而止。其夜夢一人雲:吾止此塚三百餘年,卿二子痡見毀,賴相保護
,又享吾佳茗,雖潛壤朽骨,豈忘翳桑之報。及曉,於庭中獲錢十萬,似
久埋者,但貫新耳。母告,二子慚之,從是禱饋愈甚。”
《廣陵耆老傳》:“晉元帝時有老姥,每旦獨提一器茗,往市鬻之,市人
競買,自旦至夕,其器不減,所得錢散路傍孤貧乞人。人或異之,州法曹
縶之獄中,至夜,老姥執所鬻茗器,從獄牖中飛出。”
《藝術傳》:“敦煌人單道開不畏寒暑,常服小石子。所服藥有松桂蜜之
氣,所余茶蘇而已。”釋道該說《續名僧傳》:“宋釋法瑤姓楊氏,河東
人,永嘉中過江遇沈台真,請真君武康小山寺,年垂懸車,飯所飲茶,永
明中敕吳興禮致上京,年七十九。”
《宋江氏家傳》:“江統字應遷,湣懷太子洗馬,常上疏諫雲:‘今西園
賣醯面藍子菜茶之屬,虧敗國體。’”
《宋錄》:“新安王子鸞、豫章王子尚,詣曇濟道人于八公山,道人設茶
茗,子尚味之曰:此甘露也,何言茶茗。”
王微《雜詩》:“寂寂掩高閣,寥寥空廣廈。待君竟不歸,收領今就檟。
鮑昭妹令暉著《香茗賦》。南齊世祖武皇帝遺詔:“我靈座上,慎勿以牲
祭,但設餅果、茶飲、乾飯、酒脯而已。”梁劉孝綽、謝晉安王餉米等,
傳詔:李孟孫宣教旨,垂賜米、酒、瓜、筍、菹、脯、酢、茗八種,氣苾
新城,味芳雲松。江潭抽節,邁昌荇之珍;疆場擢翹,越葺精之美。羞非
純束野,裛似雪之驢;鮓異陶瓶河鯉,操如瓊之粲。茗同食粲酢,望楫免
,千里宿舂,省三月種聚。小人懷惠,大懿難忘。
陶弘景《雜錄》:“苦茶輕換膏,昔丹丘子青山君服之。”
《後魏錄》:“琅琊王肅仕南朝,好茗飲蓴羹。及還北地,又好羊肉酪漿
,人或問之:茗何如酪?肅曰:茗不堪與酪奴。”
《桐君錄》:“西陽武昌廬江昔陵好茗,皆東人作清茗。茗有餑,飲之宜
人。凡可飲之物,皆多取其葉,天門冬、拔揳取根,皆益人。又巴東別有
真茗茶,煎飲令人不眠。俗中多煮檀葉,並大皂李作茶,並冷。又南方有
瓜蘆木,亦似茗,至苦澀,取屑茶,飲亦可通夜不眠。煮鹽人但資此飲,
而交廣最重,客來先設,乃加以香芼輩。
《坤元錄》:“辰州漵浦縣西北三百五十媯L射山,雲蠻俗當吉慶之時,
親族集會,歌舞於山上,山多茶樹。”
《括地圖》:“臨遂縣東一百四十埵陳鸕芊C”
山謙之《吳興記》:“烏程縣西二十埵雪聾s,出禦荈。《夷陵圖經》:
“黃牛、荊門、女觀望州等山,茶茗出焉。”
《永嘉圖經》:“永嘉縣東三百里有白茶山。”
《淮陰圖經》:“山陽縣南二十埵陳讞Y。”
《茶陵圖經》雲:“茶陵者,所謂陵穀,生茶茗焉。”《本草·木部》:
“茗,苦茶,味甘苦,微寒,無毒,主瘡,利小便,去痰渴熱,令人少睡
。秋采之苦,主下氣消食。注雲:春采之。”
《本草·菜部》:“苦茶,一名荼,一名選,一名遊冬。生益州川谷山陵
道傍,淩冬不死。三月三日采幹。注雲:疑此即是今茶,一名荼,令人不
眠。本草注。”按《詩》雲“誰謂荼苦”,又雲“堇荼如飴”,皆苦菜也
。陶謂之苦茶,木類,非菜流。茗,春采謂之苦茶。
《枕中方》:“療積年,苦茶、蜈蚣並灸,令香熟,等分搗篩,煮甘草湯
洗,以末傅之。”
《孺子方》:“療小兒無故驚蹶,以蔥須煮服之。”
八之出
山南以峽州上,襄州、荊州次,衡州下,金州、梁州又下。
淮南以光州上,義陽郡、舒州次,壽州下,蘄州、黃州又下。
浙西以湖州上,常州次,宣州、杭州、睦州、歙州下,潤州、蘇州又下。
劍南以彭州上,綿州、蜀州次,邛州次,雅州、瀘州下,眉州、漢州又下


浙東以越州上,明州、婺州次,台州下。
黔中生恩州、播州、費州、夷州,江南生鄂州、袁州、吉州,嶺南生福州
、建州、韶州、象州。其恩、播、費、夷、鄂、袁、吉、福、建、泉、韶
、象十一州未詳。往往得之,其味極佳。

九之略
其造具,若方春禁火之時,於野寺山園叢手而掇,乃蒸,乃舂,乃以火乾
之,則又棨、樸、焙、貫、相、穿、育等七事皆廢。其煮器,若松間石上
可坐,則具列,廢用槁薪鼎櫪之屬,則風爐、灰承、炭撾、火筴、交床等
廢;若瞰泉臨澗,則水方、滌方、漉水囊廢。若五人已下,茶可末而精者
,則羅廢;若援藟躋嵒,引入洞,於山口灸而末之,或紙包合貯,則碾、
拂末等廢;既瓢碗、筴、劄、熟盂、醝簋悉以一筥盛之,則都籃廢。但城
邑之中,王公之門,二十四器闕一則茶廢矣!

十之圖
以絹素或四幅或六幅,分佈寫之,陳諸座隅,則茶之源、之具、之造、之
器、之煮、之飲、之事、之出、之略,目擊而存,於是《茶經》之始終備
焉。

4/27/2010

Incense Terminology

Incense Terminology
Incense Arts- [香道 , Kodo]
Agarwood - [ 沈香 ] – from heartwood from Aquilaria trees, unique, the incense wood most used in incense ceremony, other names are: lignum aloes or aloeswood, gaharu, jinko, or oud.
Censer - [香爐] - usually small, and used for heating incense not burning.
Censer and incense burner, the terms are sometimes interchangeable.
Charcoal - [木炭] - only the odorless kind is used.
Incense burner - [香爐] - usually larger than a censer, and used for burning incense.
Incense woods - [ 香木 ] - a naturally fragrant resinous wood.
Leaf-tea type - [葉茶類] - tea consisting of the leaves, no tips.
Musical terminology borrowed and related to scent:
Sharp notes - [高頻] - the first and most volatile scents, quick to dissipate.
Round notes - [中頻] - the main body scents, dissipating in the middle.
Deep notes - [低頻] - the finishing scents, lingering and slowest to dissipate.
Note: the above musical terms are also used similarly in the perfume industry.
Odor - more pleasantly known as, “fragrance, aroma, or scent” - [ 香 ].
Olfactory glands - [嗅腺] - the glands that are responsible for the sense of smell.
Tea incense - [茶香] - dry-leaf, pure brew-able and drinkable tea used as incense.
Tip-tea type - [芽茶類] - tea consisting the young unfurled tips and leaves.
-steven(2008)

4/25/2010

第一屆彩霞之春無我茶會 First Rosy Spring Wu-Wo Tea Ceremony

首次在陸羽教室有英文無我茶會




第一屆彩霞之春無我茶會
First Rosy Spring Wu-Wo Tea Ceremony
時間 Date 2010年04月28日晚上 In The Evening Apr.28, 2010
開始泡茶Brewing Starts 19:10pm
地點 Location
陸羽茶藝中心教室 Lu-Yu Tea Culture Institute Classroom
第2期茶之專業英語
Second Class of Specialized English for Tea
英文之無我茶會是一個不錯的學習英文方法。
人人泡茶、人人奉茶、人人喝茶,
大家邊聽著解說員用英文解說無我茶會的流程以及七大精神。
“一石二鳥Kill two birds with one stone”

英文無我茶會
This intensive Specialized English for Tea Studies course is held at Lu-Yu Tea Culture Institute in Taipei and is designed for setting a standard for tea terminology and to meet the demands of the students’ future role in Tea Studies. As part of the curriculum the students must arrange a tea ceremony event in English. I having only been an advisor for this event, but it has been the students that have put it together. This Wu-Wo Tea Ceremony will be small; but it is a complete step forward for the upcoming International Wu-Wo Tea Ceremony next year held in Taiwan. To help complete this goal and to continue preparing with next year’s events (2011), we will organize an in-class tea ceremony. All the standard measures will be completed as any other Wu-Wo Tea Ceremony, including a Public Announcement in “English and Chinese中英文公告事項 ”, narrators, instruction, as well as banners and signs all in English. This will be a practical use of Tea Terminology as well as a chance to test run an “English Language Wu-Wo Tea Ceremony英文無我茶會 ”. Photos, instruction, and Public Announcement will be taken and posted. This learning experience is for all to share. Your suggestions are appreciated.
The Following participants:
高寶桂 , 謝秀霞 , 郭芝辰 , 吳淑萍, Chang Li-Hsiang , 林鳳嬌, 林靜芬 , 吳嘉鑫 , 陳佩君 , 邱嵐攸 , 林家麒 , 林芳瑩 , 許倩雯 , 陳佁妃 , 呂英慈 , 吳愛薇,
--- Steven R. Jones



1. Lu-Yu Tea Culture Institute Classroom, Taipei, Apr. 28, 2010, 7:10-8:00pm
第一屆 2010.04.28 日晚上地點陸羽茶藝中心教室

4/24/2010

茶化學 vs 泡茶 Tea Chemistry vs Tea Brewing

泡茶師聯會      Tea Master Guild
茶化學 vs  泡茶       Tea Chemistry vs Tea Brewing
賴正南博士
Dr. Lai has made great strides in the field of tea science and culture.
Thank you.

4/23/2010

April Showers Bring May Flowers

April Showers Bring May Flowers 

( 四月雨帶來五月花 )

節氣period
清明節Ching Ming Festival(Apr. 4-6)
明前茶Pre-Ching Ming Tea
穀雨Grain Rain(Apr. 19-21)
穀雨茶Grain Rain Tea

若依"節氣period "而分,春茶尚可分成三個階段,第一階段是"清明節Ching Ming Day"以前採制的芽茶類,俗稱"明前茶Pre-Ching Ming Tea"。第二階段是清明節以後採制的較為早采的葉茶類。第三階段是"穀雨Grain Rain"以後採制成熟度較高的葉茶類,俗稱"穀雨茶Grain Rain Tea"。

春天的雲彩spring rosy sky
"綠茶green tea" 有如一片 "春天的雲彩spring rosy sky",像慈祥的寶寶。

秋天變紅了的楓樹林autumn maple forest
"紅茶black tea" 有如一片 "秋天變紅了的楓樹林autumn maple forest",像慈祥的媽媽。

Teas, seasons, and foods

Teas and the seasons,

spring- green tea
summer- black tea
fall- oolong tea
winter- puer tea

Matching tea and foods:
fish- green tea,
meats maybe a black tea,
veggie- oolong,
chinese food- puer...

4/21/2010

士林社大(竹山戶外活動)Tea Appreciation Day 『世界奉茶日』2010




Tea Appreciation Day 『世界奉茶日』



04/17/2010竹山
士林社大(竹山戶外活動)
Tea Appreciation Day 『世界奉茶日』

***
Tea Appreciation Day

Spring of 2005, Taipei Taiwan
Written by Steven R. Jones

Spirit of offering to extend Wu-Wo Tea Ceremony originally came from a celebration on Mother's Day called “Family Tea Ceremony” (officially held around 500 people and their Family Wu-Wo Tea Ceremony which began May 12, 1991 at Taipei Music Hall Square, has had 14 years of history), and now has expanded for all people, It is held one day during the first weekend of May (or close to it) every year from 2005. People and organizations can gather together to make and serve tea with the attending individuals and passing strangers alike. This activity is healthy, and now in 2005 the universal activity peacefully chooses the name "Tea Appreciation Day". Any person of: an organization, a group, an association, a family, a community, a school, can organize, and unite on this day with individual, at some pre-planned place like perhaps in a public square, and conduct any kind of tea party for the invited people, and even the strangers which might pass by. The activity could even include, lectures or the conversation, and its content should include tea culture related curriculum. Activity leaders must follow local laws and regulations. There is no need to register with any organization (including The International Wu-Wo Tea Ceremony Association), Any written material or announcements including a bulletin board, is just for conveying and promoting the association for people to enter or be informed. In order to promote The International Wu-Wo Tea Ceremony Association, the Association will print a poster every year to make public. If any organization or individual would like a poster they must make a request from The International Wu-Wo Tea Ceremony Association.
「五月世界奉茶日」簡介
1. 主旨:奉一杯茶給親人、朋友及陌生的人,增進社會祥和之氣。這是茶文化很重要的一項內涵與作為,我們以每年一個全民「奉茶日」來發揚光大之。

2. 時間:每年五月的第一個週末,從週末前後延伸的一個星期。

3. 方式:有志於此項活動的單位或個人,以自己認為最適當的方式,舉辦一次茶會,奉茶給參觀的人、應邀與會的人、或是您的鄰居、親友。

4. 話題:活動期間談論的主題僅限與茶直接有關的事物。如對茶的認識、泡法、茶器、茶史、茶藝、茶道理念、茶與健康等。

5. 聯絡方法:所有舉辦奉茶日活動的單位或個人即是此項活動的聯絡、諮詢對象,有志於此項活動,並擬公開舉辦者,得透過任何方式將奉茶時間、地點、方式公告之。

6. 擬舉辦之單位或個人:(大家相約舉辦,登記僅為顯示推廣狀況,非屬必要。)
Poster reads:
All over the world every year, the first weekend or close to it in May places are chosen to celebrate Tea Appreciation Day. People gather together to make and serve tea with close relatives, friends, and strangers alike.
Please contact:
International Wu-Wo Tea Ceremony Association
3F, #64, Heng-Yang Rd.,
Taipei, Taiwan, 10003
Tel: +886-2-2331-6636
FAX: +886-2-2331-0660
(spring 2005, revised May 2009 added Chinese)

4/20/2010

茶香之旋律 Melody of Tea Incense

I know dogs have a great nose, I wish I could ask them(dogs) what tea smells like. How do you describe the flavor of tea?, We could say that Dragon Well tea taste like you know...Dragon Well green tea.  Taste, odor, fragrance, aroma, flavor, scent, just where do we begin?
 

just the basic basics

Now how hard can it be to brew a cup of tea? One answer is, "very easy", the other answer is "very hard". I leave the choice to you. Like most things, the more you learn the more you realize, you need to learn more! When brewing multiple rounds (4~5), each round can and should taste about the same. Yet getting the parameters right is no easy task. That is why they call it Gongfu Tea.

Pioneering English Translation of Chinese Tea Studies Terminology, 5th Lu-Yu Tea Studies Journal

http://teaarts.blogspot.com/2010/04/5th-lu-yu-tea-studies-journal.html

Pioneering English Translation of Chinese Tea Studies Terminology
By:  Steven R. Jones
5th Lu-Yu Tea Studies Deliberation of Papers Published Journal Conference
Pub:  Lu-Yu Tea Culture Institute, 2010.04李瑞河
ISBN 978-986-84204-1-0

首創如此英譯的中文茶學術語
作者:  瓊斯‧史迪芬
第五屆陸羽茶學研討論文發表會 (3940屆泡茶師頒證典禮)
陸羽茶藝股份有限公司 , 2010.04, ISBN 978-986-84204-1-0






Pioneering English Translation
of
Chinese Tea Studies Terminology
首創如此英譯的中文茶學術語
_________________________________________________

Steven R. Jones 瓊斯史迪芬
__________________________________________________

Mar. 8, 2010

Tea is our bridge and language is our road to this bridge.

Fig1


摘要Abstract:
激動人心之論文發表會尚稱是大家的潤滑劑,夠從中得到更多有益的啟發。哲學家:沉默是一種成熟;思想家:沉默是一種美德;科學家:沉默是一種發明;教育教:沉默是一種智慧;藝術家:沉默是一種魅力。一項茶文化或歷史背景、茶葉製造方面以及對茶學最基本性認識等等之英文茶學術語,並不是只說得一口尚稱流利的國際英語就夠地。俗語;學以致用,現在我將這段時間所學的翻譯成英譯茶學術語,也希望能傳遞荼學術語遍及全球。

Where’s my tea terminology dictionary?
To the reader; some of this writing has tea terminology that in not in the dictionary or has a different definition, then we have defined, in many cases while reading this paper, you might notice some Chinese terms adjacent English terms, these are translations and in most cases the Chinese-English Tea Term which gives both terms have the same definition and are interchangeable depending on the language needed C-E or E-C.  The main purpose of this paper is to show some of the motives and background for determining tea terms, and to show some working examples, and in a style that accommodates Chinese and English together for us to immediately see and pinpoint the translation.  Also the writings, examples, diagrams, and charts, used are for the reader to explore.  If you are thinking, “I wish I could read Chinese”.  If it was true one thing is, you would know exactly what the meaning is for the Chinese term but you might neglect more in considering the English term. This brings up an interesting factor, that could lead to some biases or thinking too much Chinese and that the English part might seem unacceptable.  Since many of these English terms are new in this lexicon or rediscovered from another area of study for use here.  Also even if you do understand Chinese one still needs to think more about the English situation, since there is already so much Chinese tea info out there, actually too much.  What we are trying to do here is not just translate Chinese-English Tea Terminology but make a never before made Standard Terms of Tea Studies.  I will also discuss my own hopes and goals for the furthering the growth and promoting this much needed Tea Terminology in the English language.  Because I am well aware that my own mother tongue English or should I say American English, well it does not matter, because the English language now in today’s world does not belong to me or a country. It has become not through planning and rules but from a matter of circumstances the international language of most professional studies and seems to be continuing on this route.  So even by translations and teachings I must be accommodating of the cultural needs of the source Chinese  term and not be set in an unbending traditional English language rules mode.  Because the goal of this whole project is for people to be able to use, write, or speak about tea studies to some extent, and for the reader or listener to be able to understand.   

Not just a city that has tea, this is a city with a tea culture.
This is where I fell in love with tea.  Taipei’s culture is from China and China’s culture is rooted in Tea.  Remember Chinese Tea Arts is also one of the high classical arts from ages ago that was studied by the literati also know as scholars in the West.  Times here have not changed that much, for the brilliant minds of Taipei still enjoy the power of tea.  It is rare to see a meeting without cups of tea or a sole master alone at work without the company tea.  I have a saying, “Tea is our bridge”.  And you can see those tea bridges or should I say tea bonds very clearly here.
Every street, every lane, every alley, and every park, there is tea; tea for buying, tea for public drinking, like water is to some, tea for ceremonies, tea for arts, tea for truly anything.  Anyone who has been to Taipei has sampled Taiwan teas, from the airport, hotel or a gift shop.  And when I am served a cup of tea, even if it is just a small free sample, I am always humbled by the care and skill that goes in to that preparation.  Many teas are enjoyed using Gongfu Tea Ceremony.  Using small cups and special practiced and intuitive skills to make each round of brewed tea taste its best, from the first round to the last.  Most tea masters don’t keep track of the numeric parameters of brewing they just know, a pinch here a time there and presto!  Sounds like magic huh?
Many Westerners find Gongfu Tea complicated at first, therefore, we need to make it easy for new comers.  There is something I call the 3-Ts which is Tea amount, Temperature, and Time. 

               泡茶表 Brewing guidelines     
                                         

泡茶三要素 The Three Ts
           3-Ts    =   tea, temperature, and time
茶量 Tea
茶量 amount of tea leaf
溫度 Temperature
水溫 water temperature
時間 Time
浸泡時間 steeping period


Getting these related parameters in balanced is an Art.  And the variety is vast with oolong teas, green teas, black teas, etc., with a wide range of qualities and prices too.  Taiwan is most known for its oolong teas, which are partially fermented putting them on the tea spectrum between non-fermented green teas and completely fermented black teas.  The Japanese travelers are especially fond of the ginseng oolong.  Taiwan is also famous for its roasted oolong teas, to get the right degree of fermentation and the right degree of roasting is no easy task. 
The long history of Taiwanese tea in America started with Formosa oolong.  Americans were taken by Taiwan’s tea.  The first cargo left a port north of Taipei and entered New York in 1869 it was called Formosa Tea.  In the following years, Formosa (Taiwan) Tea was usually more expensive than other teas coming from the orient.  Today many Chinese teas are greatly in demand and it is hard to keep up with the ever growing populations of tea drinkers.  Today, in America white tea is all the craze, white tea comes from China and they are busy trying to keep up with demand, white tea is made from the scarce young fuzzy tips.
Overall, Asian teas are not just brewing in Asia; they are on the rise in America as well as in Europe.  Examples of popular teas are Chinese Puer teas, Japanese green teas, Indian black teas, and of course, Taiwanese oolongs.  And with each tea that travels to a land afar, some of its culture is tucked inside the tea leaf and awaits to be brewed and then it will awake.  So please read all the descriptions on the labels to learn as much about that tea as possible; and remember as you read that most are translated which in not a simple task.  I tell our students at “Tenfu Tea College” in the “Tea Studies Terminology class”, if they later are in the situation and asked to write a description for a tea or tea ware, first do their homework and find out as much as possible. And be as correct and clear on the ideas and write it in English first using the knowledge and terminology they have learned and then the easy part for them since most speak and write Chinese, is to then write the Chinese translation with the proper terminology and description.  And then back-check both ways.  These small writings become very important steps for Westerners learning more about tea culture.

From the other side of the world to find love.
There were many events that have led me from the other side of the world to Asia for over twenty years and counting, mainly in Taipei.  I am an American, but my grandmother was from England and drank tea, and both my parents did not drink coffee, but tea.  So of course I drank tea.  When I came to Taipei, I was amazed how they made such a big deal just to make a little cup of tea.  One event that sticks in my mind is that of being in a tea shop and having a tea master seated at a tea cart in front of me, and shows me some beautiful loose tea and begins the act of making tea.  The loose tea went from the tea holder to the teapot sitting on the tea boat to catch any splashes.  And the water kettle poured water in the teapot and the teapot was then emptied into the tea pitcher where it was poured into a scent cup and lastly transferred into a teacup. I thought to myself, “Wow, all that for a little cup of tea?”  But my “wow?” turned into an “oh yes!” once I drank the tea, that was the point I fell in love with tea, almost twenty years ago.  By the way, the tea was Oriental Beauty also called White Tip Oolong.  White Tip Oolong is from Taiwan, and is a tip-type tea which is made of many tips and some young leaves, it is not roasted and heavily fermented, with a rich and refined character and a honey scent and ripe fruity flavor and an orange-red liquid color.  I also found the love of my life here, my lovely wife, and still happily married.

First things first, for every tea book in English; there are hundreds of tea books in Chinese.
Not to say that there is not a sophisticated tea terminology in English already out there.  Yet most of the tea terminology and written materials are usually centered on just black tea.  Now the Chinese language is rich and very detailed on tea and so much information; there are 10s of tea magazines and 100s of tea books, ranging from arts, science, philosophy, cooking, and much more.  Remember every basic type of tea is also made in China:  green tea, yellow tea, white tea, oolong tea, black tea, green Puer, and dark tea (including dark Puer).  Many of these teas are exclusively from China while others are also grown around the world.  Also each one of these major tea types  have their origins in China, so between the growers, producers, merchants, brew artists, tea masters and tea teachers, and connoisseurs, the tea terminology is very developed and diverse.  Tea has been part of Chinese civilization for thousands of years, (documented: over a thousand years).  Also ages ago many Asian Cultures used Chinese as their written language, creating an influence on many cultures, some of these surviving ancient works can be read today.

Right place at the right time.
The main reason I started learning more and more about tea was that this was a product of circumstance. Living in Taiwan and liking tea. Not just living here, but learning and living the culture simultaneously.  Persuading my wife to studying tea culture and sharing with me was easy. Because for years I had been making tea for her, without any kind of tea education and she knew I was very interested.  We also became involved with many tea social groups.  And I was happily busy learning Chinese and tea at the same time.  It was essential that I first learn some Chinese by taking a few Chinese language classes at a language school.  She continued her tea studies and I remain somewhat involved at her tea school, I was a volunteer to help with the activities. 
When my wife began taking classes I would take her to and pick her up from school and sometimes I would hang around, at first it was all Greek to me, or should I say Chinese to me, because even though I could speak some Chinese the topic at the school was "tea as in tea studies", and everyone including my wife were using words I never heard of and when we used a Chinese to English (C-E) dictionary my wife would say that is strange the tea term is not in here, so we would pull out the big fat C-E dictionary and again it was not there.  These were great dictionaries but not tea specific.  I already had some tea books in English but it was not working.  So she would explain to me in English what they learned and what the terms were in Chinese.  Well after several years, it finally happened, my wife graduated and was a certified Tea Master, I felt so proud of her.  She wound up with three major degrees as well as some others.  And she started teaching some tea ceremony.
And now her attention including our tea friends turned in to me and they said rather abruptly and often, “hey why don’t you take some classes?”  At first I was not only shocked but intimidated because my Chinese at the time was not sufficient enough and my tea knowledge was fair at best.  Therefore, I wanted to put this off, I was not in any rush to take classes in a foreign language, but if I did want to learn more, the opportunity in America to learn and take classes for years on tea is unheard of.  Except for one and that would be Japanese Tea Ceremony.  So here I was in Taipei, in the middle of tea culture, surrounded my brilliant instructors, and at a great school with lots of classes including mostly Chinese but some Japanese, Korean, and even British tea culture.  I began slowly taking classes.
At first, I thought of using my English language tea books to help me with my classes, but I found it a hindrance, since the classes were in Chinese.   There are some great English materials on tea, but some have very shallow topics and by using different words for tea studies terminology and definitely no standard of usage, so I gave up the English books for awhile and focused on my classes and my Chinese tea books, and many dictionaries English-English, Chinese- English, Chinese-English and Chinese-Chinese, and used the internet, but the most important help was from my guiding wife.   I am an advocate for using the internet for language and culture interaction without having to leave home; also there are a lot of great people and websites on tea.  And I'm sure you already know there is a lot of junk to navigate through on the internet as well.
After a few years of classes, again wife, instructors, and friends, the question started coming up about when was I going to take the tests (certification exams)?  I smiled and laughed calmly and said quite clearly, no way!  Why should I be the first Westerner to attempt this act?  Those tests are in C-H-I-N-E-S-E; to me it felt like debating rather or not to build the China Wall, by myself!  A long story short, I finally did past the certifications as my wife before me did, and I have gray hair now too.  After that, what I was finding out was I knew so much about tea, but did not know how to clearly express it in English.  I felt frustrated.  I had written some things before about some of the tea ceremonies.  And Director Tsai and I began slowly at first to translate some simple tea names and tea production processes, and we kept this up until we had a small working vocabulary.  And now five years later we have over a thousand terms.  And I now teach at the first Tea College in the world, “Tenfu Tea College”, in English and Chinese about tea.  This has not only been satisfying, but has helped me much because instruction and practice is the greatest teacher of all. 

Those long meetings in his office.
Sometimes I look back thinking when we first started to translate tea terminology, sometimes I would stay up late and finally after a week of searching for an English term to fit the Chinese, I would finally find it!  Master Tsai and I had weekly meetings for this, and I would go in to his office smiling and show him my skimpy little list that too me days to complete, and he would calmly look though it and usually slowly pick it a part.  I could tell in his tone of voice something was wrong, he would say can you show me the Chinese definition of this word.  And we would look through language dictionaries.  The silence was deafening and I would say something like "it’s not that good… I think I should think of a better term".  And he would say, “Yes I agree”.  And after hours of going over each term, I would walk out of the office with my list of let’s say thirty terms and twenty agreed upon.  But those last few terms which would be my homework, sometimes was a pain in the…..neck.  I would get inspiration in the strangest places so working or on vacation I always carried my new list of Chinese terms that I needed to translate, some terms reminded me of putting a square peg in a round hole.

Pioneering work.
English being the internationally accepted language and having a great amount of professional terminology with many foreigners also working, reading, and writing in the English language, has made it possible to expand many specific terminologies as well as having input from many sides to keep a standard usage.  This is not the case where the specialized subject is in a language that is not spoken by many outside the country, and the subject does not have a large common ground of topics outside the country of origin. The problem most common to tea studies English terms is that most don’t exist and tea studies Chinese terms are usually difficult to translate into an English world that does not grow, produce, hardly understands brewing tea, yet does drink it, and few ceremonies except for British teatime culture as well as some others.  
What we have tried to accomplish is to make a working vocabulary of English Tea Studies Terminology.  Like any translating, in the ideal situation, it is usually best to have the following; an expert with their mother tongue in the language of the source specific terminology.  And to have an expert with knowledge and understanding of the specific terminology in both the source and target language, and with the target language as their mother tongue. And of course the two experts must be able to communicate perfectly.  But of course this is only in an ideal situation and this would have to be in a perfect world.  But my situation is not ideal and my world is far from perfect.  But we have tried to do the best possible given the knowledge and resources we have. 
Translation is a broad and much discussed and debated field, therefore we have mostly discuss the translating of tea studies for Chinese and English.   Another thing we will discuss is the creation of a working vocabulary of tea studies terminology; this list of terms is large and we still are increasing this pioneering work. 
The ways of translating tea studies terminology from Chinese to English.  First deciding what are the specialized tea studies terms and first setting out an initial list of Chinese terms with proper accepted definitions, then and accurately translate each term’s Chinese definition accurately in to English.  Then reevaluate and research any traditional common translations and usage. Sometimes there would already be one exact English term the matched the Chinese term and the job for that term would be done.  Other times there would be several very similar terms but not an exact one, and then the task would be choosing one using some agreed standards and a logical system.  But at times we also have incorporated some Chinese terms by using one of several Romanization spelling systems and then, if needed spelling it using the modern English alphabet and rules.   Also being open to suggestions, and trying not to be bias.  And taking into account we are not trying to teach the Chinese language but under some circumstances we have incorporated some Chinese terms.  In all that hopefully will make sense in the larger scope of the tea studies English language.
I have taught English for many years; and would like to bring attention to the modern English language for a moment.  One important thing to understand is that there is many different regions that speak English around the world, therefore it is good to try to adapt to English the universal language, and one thing that must be done is to make and keep English dynamic and simple as possible, this is what some call International English, the language that is owned by all.  In almost every country they learn to some degree a form of English, this is the dynamic international English.  At this time it is pointless to argue how important International English is.  As a Teacher of English as a Second Language, what is important is how we mother tongue English speakers can try to learn some of the English terms used in other countries as well as accents, and understand there is a need for an international language.  And as for second language English speakers please continue to use your English and don’t be shy when making mistakes, not any one person is always correct, and do not feel your English is wrong.  Nobody is perfect and you can use English to speak to others, not only first language English speakers, but also second language English speakers, using English as a common ground.  Keep more concern on getting your point across using the explanation or correct terminology and less on minor grammar issues.

Is it black tea or red tea? To ponder too much, can be life changing.  
Let's look at the consequences of retranslating a term.  Here we will examine why the Chinese see black tea as red in color, and why Westerners see black tea as black in color.  Before beginning, for those who are not aware, the Chinese term “black tea” is what we call “dark tea” in English, and the Chinese term “red tea” is what we call “black tea” in English.  To get a better perspective of tea and color, let’s go back in time.  In the beginning tea was “green tea”.  Much later in time black tea was made.  When this “black tea” was new and not well known, it must have been shocking to see the fresh leaves that have turned from green to copper-red during the fermentation (oxidation) process. And then the tea leaf turning to black after the drying process, then while being brewed (steeped), the black leaf created a red liquid.  In Chinese this tea was named “red tea”.  Now most agree it is because the liquid is red, but as another thought there is the possibility the tea producers which were aware of this very important process of the leaves reddening and perhaps called it “red tea”.   But to the early Western merchants busy in Chinese ports selecting and purchasing loose leaf tea, and no time for tea breaks to observe the teas liquid color and definitely never going to a tea plantation and seeing this reddening fermentation process, they only were concerned with the color of the tea product or dry leaf, and at that time there were two colors or kinds, green tea and black tea.  Below is an exercise on the effect and comparison of changing translated terms.

Example:

Below is a table of translations:


Chinese term
English term
literal translation 直譯
standard translation 意譯
red tea 紅茶
black tea
black tea 黑茶
dark tea
rooibos tea 路依保斯茶
rooibos tea or red tea



Now just as an exercise let’s try to fix this red/black tea.
Below is an “alternate 模擬測試” table of these translations:


Chinese term
English term
literal translation 直譯
alternate translation
red tea 紅茶
red tea
black tea 黑茶
black tea
rooibos tea 路依保斯茶
rooibos tea


Is this clarification or confusion?
In modern times this is a Pandora's Box; by trying to reconcile the translation of black tea to what in Chinese is called red tea, and would then lead to another turn on the Pandora’s Box and that is what we call dark tea which in Chinese is black tea.  In other words black tea would be called red tea and dark tea would be called black tea.  One last thing is rooibos tea is not a tea, it is tisane and yet sometimes referred too as red tea.  Therefore one point is not every English word needs or should be translated to the Chinese tea term equivalent.   Even though the tea term “black tea” seems that is was misinterpreted in the past, since then there has been so much use the word, that it is very common.  It would not be worth the effort to change this tea English term “black tea”.
Tracing back the roots of when Western culture learned of “black tea” by the Chinese who called it “red tea”; I will admit when I think in Chinese and first glance it looks logical and correct to change it "back so to speak" to red.  And if we actually went ahead and did this change, there would be many actions that would have to be performed to do to this correction, like document and refer back to this change of when it took place and changes should be made in dictionaries, new tea books, tea products and common language and such.  And for a period of time a notation next to the new term every time, the old term should in some form be amended, in this way it will help future historians and researchers to trace the roots our words today.  I feel in the above example the most important factor missing is the heritage of the term “black tea”.  To make the word more logical, much heritage and connotation to the term would be at stake.
 When translating we need to try to keep things as stable as possible, not only for convenience but for future researchers that might be translating and trying to trace a word’s origin.  As I have been on this quest of compiling a tea studies terminology, I have come to this crucial point, every time you create a term it is very important to give a background check and list the other terms that are also used or have been used.  This is vital to the authenticity and comprehension of historical facts.  Much of histories events unfortunately have been lost due to creditability issues due to blatantly translating the source terms and not using the standard target terms.   

A widely used English language grading system for black tea of the Western world.
Here we have a detailed and well used black tea terminology that has been in use for many years in the Western world.  There are some grading discrepancies in the particular regions and teas: areas of India, Assam, Darjeeling, and also in Sri Lanka.  For the following this is a general basic example of the grading system in India for black teas: 
But some of the terms(in full capital letters) are not so self-explanatory.  For example there are no flowers in FLOWERY and no oranges in ORANGE, but there is broke in BROKEN and tips in TIPPY.  The main term’s origin is a mystery but there are a few theories for ORANGE PEKOE.  The first word ORANGE this could have come from the citric fruit orange, with two possibilities, maybe orange oil was added to the tea or perhaps orange blossoms were added to the tea, in either case the black tea would have been a scented or spice tea originally.  In the next theory and excepted by most,  ORANGE could have been named after the royal family “House of Orange” which was powerful in tea trade at that time, therefore, using this family name “Orange” implying a royal connection with the tea.   Now for the next term PEKOE this comes from the Chinese word written as “ 白毫 ” meaning “white fuzz” that can be found on the young tips of tea plants, and when spoken in one of the many different sounding dialects and written in English to mimic the sounds “pek-hoe” was written as PEKOE.  There are two more terms used that are also derived from Chinese, one is SOUCHONG from Chinese “ 小種 ” and the other is  CONGOU from Chinese “ 工夫 ”, these last two terms are also names of Chinese black teas.  Even in our Western black tea grading system we still have Chinese words.  Whatever the origin or history of these words, they are now terms used as a leaf grading system for black tea.  It should be noted that this grading system is not used in China.





Example IV:  In this table we have the tea leaves types and the relationship to the kind of tea with the fermentation levels.


分成而與或葉茶類芽茶類
Tip or Leaf Type
茶之分類 
Classification of Tea
發酵程度
Degree of Fermentation
葉茶類   
leaf-tea type
烏龍茶
oolong tea              
部分發酵                           
partial fermentation          
芽茶類   
tip-tea type 
白茶         
white tea
部分發酵                           
partial fermentation           
芽茶類   
tip-tea type 
綠茶、黃茶     
green tea , yellow tea   
不發酵
no fermentation               
芽茶類   
tip-tea type 
紅茶                      
black tea         
全發   
complete fermentation
芽茶類  
tip-tea type 
普洱茶 、   黑茶
Puer tea, dark tea
後發酵
post-fermentation


*Exceptions:  White Tip Oolong is a “ 芽茶類 tip-tea type”  and Liuan Leaf green tea is a “ 葉茶類 leaf-tea type”, also some of the “ 芽茶類  tip-tea type” teas are actually   “全芽心 all-tip”.


The Western derived models for teas have not had such a specific and detailed tea terminology on this very simple topic of just fresh tea leaves and the relation to the kinds of tea.  With the table above we can observe the spent leaves and determine what type of leaves and if we recognize the color due to the fermentation we can further determine the classification of tea. 

Name that pot and write it down.
Another great void in the tea culture world is personal character descriptors that stem from the ceramic artists of tea ware; these creators make something that is first needed and practical and beautiful.  But remember these potter craftsmen that fulfill the need of tea ware for us to utilize, at the same time produce useful art. I usually spend much of my translating of products centered on brewing vessels like teapots or cover bowls. 
Here Lin “Li-shrue 林麗雪 with her very conscientious and ongoing work together with me to translate tea ware descriptions, a very good application of using our tea studies terminology. Many of the new tea ware products will pass through her expertise.  First she consults with the ceramic artist and writes in Chinese the name and a meaningful and a beautiful description of the piece.  Once I see the title and description of the piece, she will also show me a picture or a real prototype and she will begin the task of explaining what the artist is trying to convey and also the name of the tea ware.  For me, this is where it begins, first pondering naming the art ware and then describing with a balance of precise English translation while keeping within the bounds of comprehension. In such a way that an English reader could read the product description and find the name of the artistic tea ware appealing and understand the description meaning.  These are consumer items so the name and description should make the person feel interested and maybe puts them in a good mood or gives them a feeling of “yes I can see what the ceramic artist is conveying”.   
Anyway, like many business tasks fulfilling a need, in this one we wish to please the consumer to some extent that they will buy the product.  But for me this is not that difficult or far from how I usually translate in the education field, because I always stay aware the target audience, and it is important to make the translation smooth so it does its purpose, as simple as possible without adverse language that is destructive to the advancement of tea studies and the translation itself.
These “Product Description Sheets” are also printed on cards and placed together with the tea ware.  This project is great not only for the Chinese reader, but for the English reader to get the background and character of the particular tea ware.  Below is a reprint of one of the tea ware sheets written in the year 2009.


    



An example below:
***

陸羽產品說明書
Lu-Yu Product Description Sheet

火苗單壺                        Flame single pot
進階說明                                   Detailed Description
質地:瓷器                    Material: Porcelain
組件:壺(容積約125ccx  1    Component: Teapot (approx. vol. 125ml)x 1
產時間2009年秋開發        Issue Date: 2009 Autumn 

〝點燃希望火苗〞為設計理念。以象形之火苗為紐為之造形;
"Hope flame" design. A flame is a pictograph for the lid knob;

壺把亦是火焰之勢,整體亦如燭台,
the teapot handle is shaped like a blaze, the entirety is shaped like a candlestick as well,

配以火紅的紅釉,散發著燃燒的熱情,並傳遞著希望的光芒。
matched with the fiery red of red glaze, the distribution of the ardent enthusiasm, and light transmission of hope.
***

These Description Cards are wonderful for letting the buyer know that it is a work of art with a theme and has a personal character.  In the above example it lets the owner immediately understand the artist’s goal and builds a closeness to this particular teapot “Flame”.  As in any language the name has to be catchy, there is a delicate balance of translating direct word for word, by phases, or by being flexible and using similar meanings to achieve similar results. Then the description should echo the name “Flame”, and also use the above strategy to translate and also try to give the writing a flowing rhythm without gaps.  Again there is a fine line of being accurate and interesting at the same time.
My life has become intertwined together with tea and my goal of this pioneering project is not to finish it, but to give this English Tea Studies Terminology to the tea community to use and build on and even improve it.  Because this task is far from done.  There are so many kinds of teas and so many people wanting to drink tea, but they do not understand how to communicate about tea.  There is no official tea studies terminology in any language, but I am certain with everyone’s interest in tea and becoming more familiar with the basic terms put forth in our book “Chinese-English Terminology for Tea Studies”, published this year, that we are now able to begin the task of sharing and promoting tea culture together.  Remember tea is our bridge and language is our road to this bridge.
Have a cup of tea!

Acknowledgments: 
My tea master Prof. “Tsai Rong Tsang 蔡榮章, a brilliant man who has become my mentor that I respect as my lifelong teacher. He has worked hard creating a tea terminology and classification of the various tea topics.  I am grateful to my wife “Chang, Li-Hsiang 張麗香” for her patience in helping me to understand tea and Chinese and even more important Chinese Culture, and helping me with my teaching and translating.  Also to my teachers “Lin, Rai-Hsian 林瑞萱”,Tu, Kuo-Juey涂國瑞”, this list is too long, so I will just say thanks to all my teachers for their knowledge, advice, and support. Also to my classmates, students, and tea friends for all their help and understanding that I still am a foreigner learning. 


Profile
關於我自己

◎天福茶學院茶文化系客座講師
* Adjunct Instructor, Department of Tea Culture, Tenfu Tea College

◎陸羽茶藝中心講師
* Instructor, Lu-Yu Tea Culture Institute

◎天仁茶藝文化基金會翻譯人
* Writer and translator, Ten Ren Teaism Foundation

著有, 出版著作
Published Works

◎《茶文化系專業英語》 ( 天福茶學院 2008 ,控制號:zyk0014462)
* Specialized English for Tea”, (2008), Tenfu Tea College, Ctrl No: zyk0014462

◎《中英文"茶學術語" ( 天福茶學院 , 2009 )
* “Chinese-English Tea Studies Terminology”, (2009), Tenfu Tea College

◎《中英文茶學術語》 ( 陸羽茶藝股份有限公司 , 2010 )
* “Chinese-English Tea Studies Terminology”, (2010), Lu-Yu Tea Culture Institute, Co., Ltd.
---the end---




Some of the terms used in the above:
茶青類 Fresh Leaf Type

芽茶類 tip-tea type:
  全芽心 all-tip
  一心二葉 one-tip two-leaf
 
葉茶類 leaf-tea type:
  對口葉 terminal facing-leaf
  對口三葉 terminal facing three-leaf



Black Tea Leaf Grading (Note: only used for black tea, in India and nearby.)
  Flowery Orange Pekoe 花橙白毫
  Orange Pekoe 橙白毫
  Pekoe 白毫
  Pekoe Souchong 白毫小種
  Souchong 小種
  Congou 工夫
  Bohea 武夷

Fresh Tea Leaf Classification (Note: for all teas, not just black tea.)
  Tip 芽
  First Leaf 第一葉
  Second Leaf 第二葉
  Third Leaf 第三葉
  Fourth Leaf 第四葉
  Fifth Leaf 第五葉
  Sixth Leaf 第六葉


首創如此英譯的中文茶學術語
作者:  瓊斯‧史迪芬
第五屆陸羽茶學研討論文發表會 (3940屆泡茶師頒證典禮)
陸羽茶藝股份有限公司 , 2010.04, ISBN 978-986-84204-1-0

Pioneering English Translation of Chinese Tea Studies Terminology
By:  Steven R. Jones
5th Lu-Yu Tea Studies Deliberation of Papers Published Journal Conference
Pub:  Lu-Yu Tea Culture Institute, 2010.04李瑞河
ISBN 978-986-84204-1-0

http://teaarts.blogspot.com/2010/04/5th-lu-yu-tea-studies-journal.html